Tuesday, July 28, 2009

My Rueda Family From San Gil, Colombia (updated 10/13/2018)

As seen in my last post, a lot was written on the history of San Gil, Colombia and the Santander region. My own grandfather, Dr. Rito Rueda Rueda, published a history of his birthplace in 1968 called Presencia de un pueblo ("Presence of a People," which can be read in part on books.google.com, and an English translation by my father entitled Gods, Gold, Sex, Violence, History can be read here.)

My grandfather, however, did not share his knowledge of family history, and I am trying to fill in the gaps. At the end of Presencia de un pueblo, a biographical sketch of Rito Rueda written by his colleague Rafael Ortíz González states, "He descends from one of the founders, the royal ensign, one of the Comuneros, and from eponymous magistrates of his birth city." While I don't know who exactly Ortíz González was referring to, I have found among my ancestors a San Gil founder (Bernardo de Rueda Sarmiento) and a Comunero captain (Juan de la Cruz de Rueda Gómez). The "eponymous magistrate" was probably Rito's father, who was also named Rito Antonio Rueda Rueda. The "royal ensign" remains a mystery, but I have found a royal ensign in my family, Felipe de Arenas y Zabala. 

My research gained an unexpected boost in June 2010 from the Mormons, as they posted the church records of Santander, Colombia on their FamilySearch website. Previously I only had my grandfather's baptismal record from 1922, and then by mid-August I had found records dating back to the early 17th century. Then in April 2013, I came across the website of genealogist Rodolfo Useche Melo, who profiles the founders of Zapatoca, Colombia and their descendants, and adds another substantial branch to my family tree. The Archivo General de la Nación de Colombia also provides valuable online access to historical documents.

Various Rueda signatures through the centuries (top to bottom):
Bernardo de Rueda Sarmiento (1698)
Alonso de Rueda Sarmiento (1720)
Bernardo de Rueda Ortíz (1753)
Pablo de Rueda García (1762)
Martiniano de Rueda Serrano (1809) 
Ruperto Rueda León (1889)
Rito Rueda Rueda Sr. (1939)

I took a genetic test of my Y-chromosome's DNA and learned that my patrilineal ancestors and I belong to Haplogroup R-CTS4065, also known as R-Z2355, R-S1221, or its long-winded name, R1b1a1a2a1a2a1a1a2. This is a subclade of the P312 subclade of the R1b haplogroup, and the gobbledygook of letters actually provides clarity to my paternal prehistoric history. 

What all that means is that my distant male ancestor left East Africa for the Middle East between 70,000 to 60,000 years ago, presumably to escape droughts. He and his male descendants were nomadic hunter-gatherers who stayed in Southwest Asia until around 45,000 years ago, when my direct male ancestor was living in South Asia. His male descendants in turn were living in the steppes of Central Asia by around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago. My last common direct male ancestors with Native Americans lived around this time. 

Between 22,000 to 17,000 years ago, my direct male ancestor had returned to South or West Asia and gave his male descendants the "M343" mutation, the tell-tale sign of the R1b haplogroup. This R1b haplogroup is made up of a large number of male lineages, as branches (or "subclades") roamed the Eurasian grasslands between Central Europe and Korea, and eventually reached Western Europe and Africa. According to National Geographic's Genographic Project, about 55% of Western European men, 21% of Eastern European men, 43% of Central Asian men, 6% of West Asian men, and 5% of South Asian men belong to the R1b haplogroup. 

It's a fun trivia fact that I therefore share male ancestors from the Ice Age with a number of notable men of European patrilineal descent, including scientists Nicolas Copernicus and Charles Darwin, "Roots" author Alex Haley (whose direct male ancestor was said be an overseer of slaves), and Czar Nicholas II of Russia (of all people, the man my mother's immigrant ancestors fled). 

Another famous patrilineal line I share prehistoric male ancestry with is the House of Bourbon, one of the world's oldest surviving royal houses, which belongs to the R-Z381 (R1b1b2a1a1b) subclade. This family of monarchs includes Louis XIV and Louis XVI of France, Fernando VII of Spain (the very man Simón Bolívar fought to liberate South America), and Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI of Spain.

Unfortunately, some people have been misled by the prevalence of R1b in Europe, and called it a "European" haplogroup, or even worse, a "white" haplogroup. The simple fact is that R1b arose in South Asia or West Asia in a time before our modern racial differences or geographic regions meant anything. One of the most famous descendants of my Ice Age R1b ancestors was African: Pharaoh Akhenaten, the "heretic king" of Egypt (reigned 1351-1334 BC). Akhenaten came from a line of conquerer-kings from the R1b1a2 subclade, like his father Amenhotep III and great-great-grandfather Thutmosis III (who strove to outshine his own aunt, female pharaoh Hatshepsut). Akhenaten focused on social revolution instead, replacing traditional Egyptian polytheism with the sole worship of Aten the solar disc. Akhenaten's son and successor, Tutankhamun the boy-king, restored the old Egyptian religion but died shortly thereafter. Of course, the rediscovery of King Tut's untouched tomb resparked interest in these pharaohs, and Tut's mummy helped provide the necessary DNA evidence
Akhenaten (left) and his family, blessed by the rays of Aten the Sun God

My more humble forefather, who founded my P312 subclade, lived between 14,000 to 5,500 years ago in West Asia. His many male descendants are believed to have been among the proto-Indo-Europeans who spread from north of the Black Sea around 4000 BC (considered by many to be part of the "Yamna culture"). One branch became the "proto-Celts" in Spain by 2000 BC. National Geographic's Genographic Project says this P312 subclade accounts for about 1-2% of men in Lebanon, Iraq, and Kazakhstan, about 16% of men in France, and about 15-17% of men in Spain and Portugal. 

It's interesting to note that this wave of nomadic settlers brought the wheel ("rueda" in Spanish), domesticated horses, and the use of bronze to western Europe. One branch of the P312 subclade, M222, settled in Ireland, where their common patrilineal ancestor may have been the Irish king Niall of the Nine Hostages (fl. 400s?). Patrilineal descendants include the historian Henry Louis Gates, host of the enjoyable TV genealogy shows "African-American Lives" and "Finding Your Roots," and some of his high-profile guests. 

Once in Iberia, the proto-Indo-Europeans had families with descendants of the area's original Ice Age hunter-gatherers and the Neolithic farmers from the Levant who reached Spain around 8,000 years ago, forming the pre-Roman peoples of Iberia. Today, the average Spaniard's genetic legacy is about 50% Neolithic farmer, 30% proto-Indo-European, and 20% Ice Age hunter-gatherer, according to paleogeneticist Carles Lalueza-Fox

A 2017 genetic study suggests that my direct parental line has lived in Spain for more than 4,000 years. The DF27 mutation originated around 2200 BC in northeast Iberia, the Z220 mutation originated around 1300 BC in north-central Iberia (the eventual land of the Celts), and my personal haplogroup of R-CTS4065 arose sometime after that. At an unknown time my patrilineal ancestors settled in Andalucía, and mearliest known direct male ancestor is Alonso de Rueda (fl. c.1550), who lived in Priego de Córdoba, Andalucía, Spain. Alonso's son, Cristóbal de Rueda (c.1569-1610), was the founder of my Colombian family, as mentioned in my previous blog entry. 

Cristóbal de Rueda's younger sons, Cristóbal and Alonso de Rueda Rosales, were born in Tunja, Colombia and joined a small group of creoles and mestizos and slaves who founded frontier towns in the Santander region in the 1600s. This area was officially part of the Province of Tunja until 1795, then was called the Province of Socorro until 1857, when it was renamed in honor of President Francisco Paula de Santander. The inhabitants of this beautiful, mountainous, and remote region become known for "gritty, self-made prosperity, and a certain ungovernability," to quote historian Richard Stoller. 

Both Stoller and novelist Enrique Serrano note that the origins of Santander's settlers are largely obscure. Serrano calls the Santanderano heritage "a form of hispanidad, whose roots have not been traced with sufficiency or precision." He suspects this lack of information is deliberate, and that oftentimes settlers representing many forms of mestizaje, including recently converted Jewish and Muslim roots, wanted to escape the Inquisition of Cartagena and the officials of Tunja and Vélez. At least one prominent Santandereano surname, Silva, appears in Cartagena's Inquisition records of the time. When a crown official visited Juan Sarmiento's hacienda in 1638, he sneered that there was a "much greater amount of male and female Indians and riff-raff [mucha mas cantidad de indios e indias y chusma]." Stoller quotes another Spanish crown inspector who wrote in 1699 that Santander was "the refuge for all the criminals and delinquents that this kingdom had, and they lived with little fear of God or of the judges in Vélez... and the delinquents continued in their liberty and damnation." Santandereano leadership in the Comuneros rebellion of 1781 and many subsequent civil wars morphed the area's reputation for lawlessness into that of a fierce love of independence. 

Over time, Santandereanos and the regional historians tended to tell self-aggrandizing stories of their "noble" and "pure Castilian" heritage rather than investigate their multicultural history. My grandfather's book includes the ridiculous local lore that the heart of Don Quixote was said to be buried in San Gil. The Conde de Cuchicute, Don José María de Rueda y Gómez (1871-1945) was an extreme embodiment of this absurdity, as he created a fable of his nobility to match his feudal-style rule over a vast hacienda in Curití

A Guane market (from the blog "El Guane")
It's unfortuante that the Santandereanos who fixated on their nebulous Spanish heritage overlooked or ignored the achievements of their own indigenous ancestors, the Guane Indians. Settling in the highlands of Santander, the Guane Indians had an advanced civilization dating back to at least the 9th century AD that specialized in weaving textiles and baskets, ceramics, and agriculture. They lived in 31 affiliated chiefdoms ruled by caciques, all under the rule of the main cacique who lived in the heights of Xérira (now Mesa de los Santos). The Guane mummified their dead and buried them deep in caves, painted and carved pictographs, created their own calendar, and gathered queen Atta laevigata ants as they emerged every March and April to roast and eat. This last tradition continues in Santander to this day, and the locals call these deliciously crunchy ants with large abdomens hormigas culonas, meaning "big-ass ants." 

The one thing the Guane did very little of was mining and metalwork. It's bitterly ironic that after the initial conquest by the Spanish in the 1540s, the conquistadors found gold in the local rivers in 1551 and forced many of the Guane to relocate and work in large-scale mining, alongside other tribes of Indians, African slaves, and mestizos. The slave labor paired with malnutrition and a major smallpox epidemic in 1558 caused the Guane population to collapse. By 1561, the Vélez authorities were investigating claims of mistreatment of Indians, including the accusation that the local Indian population was only a tenth of what it was a decade before. 

As Guane men died from hard slave labor, Guane women increasingly became servants to Spanish and creole settlers and bore their mestizo children. The Spanish praised Guanes' relatively pale skin as being "caucasoid," a description that still gets used today even when the anthropological evidence suggests otherwise. Colonial writers also marveled at how quickly the exploited Guane were willing to assimilate. Juan de Castellanos's often cited description of the Guane calls them a "white, clean, curious people," and notes of female Guane servants: "it is a marvel how [quickly] they take on the Castilian language, so well articulated the words, as if they came to them by inheritance." Yet the nimble adoption of Spanish customs did not translate into opportunities.  

As the area's gold production declined from 80,000 pesos a year in the 1610s to just 2,000 pesos in 1634-1635, the Guane were forced onto reservations in 1627 and increasingly marginalized. Spanish, creole, and mestizo settlers like my Rueda and Sarmiento ancestors occupied the stolen land, and carved up the outskirts of Vélez into more and more towns and parishes. While the number of assimilated mestizo descendants of the Guane increased, the Guane Indian population fell so low by the late 1700s that the reservations were consolidated. 

The memoir of Aquileo Parra Gómez, Colombia's president from 1876 to 1878 and a Santandereano, provides an interesting peek into this obscure period of mestizaje. Parra said his mother told him as a child that her great-grandfather Rueda married the daughter of a Guane cacique. His aunt also overheard the story and made a face of disgust. I'm sure my own ancestors had similar stories of their Indian forebears that were lost to time or intentionally forgotten.

The Guane language received its death blow in 1770, when the Spanish crown forbade the teaching of indigenous languages. The last census of the Guane in 1810 found only 1,824 Indians in five settlements, compared to an estimated 300,000 Indians in 1540, the time of Spanish conquest. After Colombia gained its independence from Spain, the reservations were disbanded, all common lands ended up in private hands, and the few remaining Guane dispersed and assimilated. Only in the 20th century did Colombian archeologists start to seriously study the ancient pictographs, artifacts, and Guane mummies found in caves.

Mitochondrial DNA from Guane mummies has revealed a wide variety of maternal origins -- 9 haplogroups among 17 individuals -- with 35% from Haplogroup A, 41% from Haplogroup B, and 24% from Haplogroup D. Scientists think this high genetic variety came from two migration waves. An older indigenous group that brought Haplogroup B to the region was followed by Chibchan-speakers from Central America who brought Haplogroup A. The Guane then traded and interbred with surrounding communities, like the Muisca (Chibcha) from the nearby Altiplano Cundiboyacense.    

Santander's strongest cultural tie to the Guane Indians, the harvesting of hormigas culonas, is the subject of my favorite quote about Santandereanos. As famed naturalist José Celestino Mutis observed ants in 1777, he noted in his diary: “I have not yet been able to see the arriera-winged mothers to verify if these will be the ones that some Indians very much like to fry, as do the Americanos [Spanish colonists] of a few towns like Barichara. These people are scornfully nicknamed comehormigas [ant-eaters].” [Translation from Kingdom of Ants (2010) by Edward O. Wilson and José Gómez Durán] 

And now, here is the genealogical nitty-gritty of my own "ant-eaters."

The 1636 baptism of Ana Rueda Sarmiento,
the daughter of Crist
óbal de Rueda Rosales
and granddaughter of the Spanish migrant Crist
óbal de Rueda. 

Fray Alonso Ortíz Galeano was the officiant.

First Generation
Note: The first few generations rely heavily on "Las genealogías del Nuevo Reino de Granada" by the 17th-century genealogist Juan Flórez de Ocáriz. His first volume has information on 
Martín Galeano's family and the Ortíz Galeano family and his second volume has information on the families of Francisca Inga and Francisco Fernández, and the Gutiérrez de Aponte, Poveda, Rueda, and Sarmiento families. 
These families took part in conquest and genocide (which Flórez de Ocáriz euphemistically calls "pacifications") alongside Colombia's first colonists and made their fortunes off of "encomiendas," the practice that gave colonists entire Indian communities to enslave and exploit, mine the earth, pan the rivers for gold, and till the fields. In 1561, several of my direct ancestors in Vélez, Colombia were accused of displacing the local Indians and even using them as beasts of burden. 
For a broader picture, Flórez de Ocáriz's enthusiasm should be tempered with "The Destruction of the Indies" by the sensitive 16th-century historian Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, "The Conquerors of the New Kingdom of Granada" by José Ignacio Avellaneda Navas, and "Invading Colombia" by J. Michael Francis.

~ Captain Diego Ortíz Galeano (1503-c.1584) was a conquistador from Baeza, Andalucía, Spain, who entered the "Nuevo Reino de Granada" (Colombia) as part of the expedition of Nikolaus Federmann [aka Nicolás Federman] (1536-1539), which started with 300 Spaniards and ended with 160 ragged survivors descending from the chilly, unpopulated páramo ecosystem and happening by chance upon the new Spanish settlement of Bogotá in February 1539. Eyewitnesses quoted by historian J. Michael Francis noted of Federman's men: "They arrived completely lost and destroyed, ill, wearing [nothing but] deer skins," and "Any more hardships and surely they all would have perished." Diego then took part in the founding of Vélez, where he settled, served as alcalde (town magistrate) in 1558, and ruled over encomiendas that included the Indians of Ytierra, Misaque, Queregana, and Carahota, near Vélez. Avellaneda lists Diego's encomiendas as Carahota, Curgune, Nemizaque, and Quereguán. 
Flórez de Ocáriz notes no relation between Diego Ortíz Galeano and the conquistador Martín Galeano (who was from Extremadura), but he does say that Diego was the son of Miguel Galeano and the great-great-grandson of Pedro García Galeano, who in 1429 won a court case in Baeza that determined he was an hijodalgo (of "noble" family). As a result, Pedro (a.k.a. Pero) did not have to pay the moneda forera, a cyclical tax that commoners gave to the king of Castilla y León. Nobles and clergy were exempt from this tax, and Pedro testified that his father and grandfather had also never paid the moneda forera. Even in the late 1600s, Pedro's descendants cited this case to demonstrate their "nobility." 
~ As for Diego, he never married and had an illegitimate daughter by an unnamed [probably Indian] woman:
1. Inés Ortíz Galeano, whose family continues below. 
Signature of Diego Ortíz Galeano (1560)

~ Pedro Hernández de Miranda, according to Flórez de Ocáriz, came from a "noble" family from Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. The Miranda family crest bears a serpent, as according to legend the progenitor of the Mirandas met a "doncella encantada" (enchanted maiden) who could turn into a snake, and he took from her a girl who eventually became his wife. This retells the myth of the "xana," female spirits who live in the wilds of Asturias, which in turn references Celtic mythology. The Miranda family crest also has the nude busts of five women, because a Miranda ancestor in the 9th century AD supposedly rescued five Asturian women who were sent to Córdoba to appease the Moors. 
Pedro de Miranda (a.k.a. Hernando de Miranda) first settled in Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, where he married Luisa Vázquez Clavijo, who was born on Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. After his wife's death, Pedro accompanied Governor Jerónimo Lebrón de Quiñones to Vélez, Colombia in 1540. Pedro and Luisa had only one daughter:
1. Luisa Vázquez, whose family continues below.

~ Bartolomé Hernández Herreño (c.1502-1558), a.k.a. Bartolomé Herreño, came to the New World in 1530, probably as a settler of "Klein Venedig," the Welser banking family's attempted colony in Colombia/Venezuela. He was part of the disastrous final expedition of Ambrosio Alfinger (Ambrosius Ehinger), which ended with Alfinger's death in 1533. Bartolomé survived the hardship and returned to Colombia as part of the expedition of Nikolaus Federmann (1536-1539). He first settled in Vélez (founded 1539), explored the Río de Oro to the north, then settled in León de los Yariguíes (a.k.a. Franca de León, founded 1552), where he served as a chief justice. Bartolomé died alongside his grown son while fighting an Indian rebellion, as they were both hit with poisoned arrows. Bartolomé had at least another son with an unnamed [probably Indian] woman:
1. Francisco Sánchez Herreño, whose family continues below. 
Bartolomé Hernández Herreño's signature (1552)

~ Alonso Ramírez de Arellano y Poveda (c.1515-after 1576?) was born in Villaescusa de Haro, Cuenca, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain to Juan de Poveda and María López. Flórez de Ocáriz said that Alonso's parental grandparents were Sebastián de Poveda and María Ramírez from Gordexola, Vizcaya, Spain. Alonso came to Colombia as part of the expedition of Nikolaus Federmann (1536-1539), settled in Vélez, and served as the city's alcalde (magistrate) in 1540 and 1549. He also ruled the nearby encomienda of Popoba. Fellow conquistador Luis Lanchero enlisted Alonso to help massacre the Muzo Indians and steal their land in 1559, allowing Lanchero to found the city of Muzo that same year. Alonso's brother, Benito López de Poveda, served as one of of Muzo's first regidores (aldermen). Flórez de Ocáriz claimed that Alonso drowned in a river during an expedition to El Dorado (maybe the one led by Pedro de Ursúa and Lope de Aguirre?), but the historian Avellaneda found a 1576 document referring to a "Captain Poveda of Vélez, a very poor conquistador laden with children." Alonso de Poveda married Juana Franco, the niece of conquistador Martín Galeano, and had six legitimate children, including: 
1. María de Poveda, whose family continues below. 
2. Ana de Poveda
3. Captain Francisco de Poveda, who died while fighting the Yariguí Indians. 
4. Alonso de Poveda  

Martín Galeano (c.1505-1554?), an uncle of Juana Franco de Poveda, was one of the most ruthless and effective conquistadores of Colombia. Probably born in Valencia del Mombuey, Badajoz, Extremadura, Martín joined the army of Emperor Carlos V, fought in Italy under the command of General Antonio de Leyva, and probably took part in the Battle of Pavia (1525). By 1535 Martín was back in Spain, and the historian Avellaneda notes that Martín signed up on July 26 of that year to be part of Pedro de Mendoza's expedition to Río de la Plata. He is listed as the son of Juan Miguel Galeano and María Ruíz, residents of Valencia. However Martín chose not to join Mendoza and become a founder of Buenos Aires, and instead set sail with the armada of adelantado Pedro Fernández de Lugo, to become an eventual founder of Bogotá. Ten ships carrying between 1,000 to 1,200 passengers left Santa Cruz, Tenerife in the Canary Islands in November 1535 and arrived at Santa Marta with great fanfare on January 2, 1536. 
The 1535 passenger record of Martín Galeano
Lugo chose Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada to lead an expedition along the Magdalena River to duplicate Pizarro's successful pillaging of Peru, and Martín was among the 800 Spaniards and unknown number of African and Indian slaves who began that journey on April 5, 1536. Tropical disease and death reduced the expedition to 179 Spaniards by December 1536. Blocks of salt and cotton blankets brought from the east by Indians convinced Jiménez de Quesada to leave the Magdalena River and climb into the Sierra de Opón (eastern Andes) to find a complex civilization to plunder.  
By March 1537 they had reached the realm of the Muiscas, headed by the chieftain Bacatá, whose village of the same name became the city of Bogotá and whose name eventually graced Colombia's tallest skyscraper. The Muisca nursed the Spaniards back to health but then hid the majority of their treasure when they realized the Spaniards' true intentions. The Spanish invaders' advantages of steel, guns, horses, and new diseases like smallpox quickly wore down Muisca resistance. Bacatá and other rulers like the cacique of Sogamoso abandoned their villages and fled into the mountains, and while the Spanish eventually killed Bacatá, his vast wealth (the now legendary "Gold of El Dorado") has not been located to this day. Quemuenchatocha, the zaque of Hunza and the second-most powerful Muisca lord, chose to fight the Spanish, but his troops quickly lost on August 20, 1537 and he was taken captive. The majority of gold and emeralds stolen by Jiménez de Quesada came from the subsequent looting of Hunza. In June 1538, the surviving 173 Spaniards (including Martín) got their official share of the loot: at least 510 pesos of fine gold, 57 pesos of gold alloy, and five emeralds. Jiménez de Quesada got nine of those shares, and Governor Lugo got 10 shares. 
The golden "Muisca raft," masterpiece of the Museo del Oro 
The Spaniards settled in the Muisca village of Bacatá and christened it "Santa Fé de Bogotá" on August 6, 1538. A major surprise came the following February, when the expeditions of Federman and Sebastián de Belalcázar arrived in the area within weeks of each other. With roughly 480 European treasure hunters now gathered in Bogotá, Jiménez de Quesada decided to "found" the city once more on April 27, 1539 and settle two more cities. The Muisca village of Hunza was officially "founded" and renamed Tunja on August 6, 1539. Jiménez de Quesada entrusted Martín Galeano with founding the third city
Martín Galeano traveled to the northernmost Muisca lands in what is now Santander Department, and chose the village of Ubasá to become his city of Vélez, which he "founded" on June 6, 1539. Martín traveled further north in 1540, into the realm of the Guanes, a civilization that interacted with the Muisca but spoke a language distinct from Chibcha, the Muisca language. During a systematic conquest of the Guane over the next three years, many caciques — Chalalá, Macaregua, Chanchón, and the powerful Guanentá — valiantly fought the Spanish and lost. The caciques' names live on in Santander's geography, and to this day santandereanos refer to themselves as "guanentinos," after the cacique who lived on the majestic outcrop of Jérira, now Mesa de los Santos.  
An accomplished administrator as well as a warrior, Martín Galeano owned the encomiendas of Chipatá, Guane, Guavatá, Orta, Saboyá, and Yacarebo, served as the chief justice of Vélez from 1539-1543 and 1546-1551, ran a store that sold goods from Spain, and even tried to build and operate a road to the nearby Carare River. But all this industry depended on slave labor, and starting in 1547 Martín faced legal trouble for the "innumerable deaths and cruelties that he [had] done to the Indians." Charges included cutting off the hands, tongues, and ears of Indians, and killing the cacique of Chipatá for material gain. The colonial court first assigned Martín to military service against the Muzo Indians, which seems like a strange punishment for the crime, but then his sentences worsened. In 1551, Martín lost his title of chief justice and was fined 100 pesos of fine gold, and then in 1554 was taken into custody, and forced onto a ship bound for Spain (for more details, read "La provincia de Guanentá: orígenes de sus poblamientos urbanos"). Most historians agree that Martín died as the ship was passing by the Bahamas.
Martín's only child, an illegitimate daughter named Marina Galeano, died childless, but his widow Isabel Juan de Arroyo had many descendants from her first marriage, including a great-great-great-granddaughter who married the genealogist Juan Flórez de Ocáriz. In "Las genealogías del Nuevo Reino de Granada," Flórez de Ocáriz gave Martín Galeano special treatment, placing the chapter on his family immediately after that of Jiménez de Quesada. While Flórez de Ocáriz did not even list Martín's parents, he claimed that Martín came from a "nobilísimo" family from Genova, Italy, and died of old age in Vélez. My grandfather, Rito Rueda Rueda, wrote that he viewed in Vélez the dilapidated house of Martín Galeano, which had outlasted its owner by four centuries. 
Martín Galeano's signature (1550)

~ Francisco Franco (born c.1522 in Palos de Moguer, Huelva, Andalucía) came to Colombia in 1543 as part of the expedition of Alonso Luis de Lugo and joined his elder brother Diego Franco in Vélez. A 1551 list of Vélez residents notes that Diego Franco owned his own horse, while Francisco only owned a crossbow. Francisco participated in several military campaigns against the Indians and was rewarded encomiendas in Simacotá, Oroco, Mencha, Cubatá, Tibacho, and Jagua. In 1552, Francisco joined an expedition that conquered and massacred the Yariguí Indians and founded the city of León de los Yariguíes (a.k.a. Franca de León). Francisco served as an alcalde (magistrate) for León in 1560 and for Vélez in 1561. Colonial officials later disbanded León because it was founded without proper authoritization, and Francisco's family then moved north to the Río del Oro, mining for gold in the area of what is now Lebrija, Santander, ColombiaFrancisco married Angela Jiménez Galeano, the sister of conquistador Martín Galeano, in Vélezand their children included: 
1. Captain Benito Franco de Velasco
2. Juana Franco, seen above, who married the conquistador Alonso de Poveda. 
3. Isabel Galeano, an ancestor of many bogotano notables, married four Spaniards: first Francisco de Céspedes (who came with the expedition of Belalcázar), then Gaspar Rodríguez (c.1506-1560, who came with the expedition of Lebrón), then Pedro de Larraondo (died 1564), and finally Pedro Chamoso. One of her grandsons, Andrés de Villela y Larraondo (born 1594 in Bogota; died 1674 in Lima), became an oidor (high court justice) in Lima, was named a Knight of Santiago in 1643, and in 1669 bought St. Rosa of Lima's birthplace to turn it into a sanctuaryA 5th-great-granddaughter of Isabel, Manuela Sanz de Santamaría y Prieto, ran the Tertulia del buen gusto (Literary Circle of Good Taste) in her own home from 1801 to 1808, attracting writers and independistas like Camilo Torres and Custodio García Rovira, and scientists like José Fernández Madrid and the students of Alexander Humboldt. 
Francisco Franco's signature (c.1572)

~ Diego Franco (born c.1515 in Andalucía; died c.1559) and Pedro Galeano (born c.1515; died after 1584) were two more conquistador uncles of Juana Franco de Poveda. Diego came to Colombia as part of the expedition of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1536-1538), settled in Vélez, and owned encomiendas in Boare, Cutiseo, and Ubasá. Pedro came to Colombia with the expedition of Belalcázar or Lebrón, settled in Vélez, and owned encomiendas in Chipatá, Cupamanga, Saboyá, and Quintagacha. Diego traveled back to Spain in 1555-1558, to officially present petitions from Vélez to the royal court. Pedro returned to Spain in 1553-1554 and is listed in his passenger record as Pedro Miguel Galeano, resident of Cabeza del Buey, Badajoz, Extremadura, son of Juan Miguel Galeano and Angela Jiménez. Pedro married Isabel Juan de Royo, the niece of the wife of his brother, Martín Galeano.    

~ Francisca Inga was the daughter of a brother of the Inca emperor Huaina Capac (who reigned from 1493-1527). Her grandfather, Túpac Inca Yupanqui, reigned from 1471-1493, conquered the Chimú empire, and may have led a sea expedition to Easter Island. Her great-grandfather, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, reigned from 1438-1471 and established the empire of Tawantinsuyu ("Land of the Four Directions") through aggressive conquests. Pachacuti proclaimed himself the "son of the Sun," created many new religious rites, and composed sacred hymns in praise of the creator god Viracocha. Francisca's imperial ancestry traces back to her 9th-great-grandparents, the first Inca ruler Manco Cápac and his wife Mama Ocllo (c.1200), who were siblings and supposed children of Inti the sun god and Mama Quilla the moon goddess.
Francisca was taken from a palace in Cajamarca, Peru by Captain Juan Muñoz de Collantes (born 1501 in Granada, Andalucía, Spain), a member of Francisco Pizarro's expedition that arrived in Peru in 1531 and looted Cuzco in 1533. It's unclear whether Juan kidnapped Francisca, or whether she was escaping the Inca Atahualpa, who was waging civil war and killing off his royal relatives. Either way, Francisca became Juan's concubine and they had a daughter, Mencia. In 1540 or 1541, the three of them traveled from Peru to Bogotá, Colombia, following the path of 
conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar. The historian José Ignacio Avellaneda Navas notes that Francisca was "the person most directly connected with a royal house, of everyone who made the Nuevo Reino [Colombia] their homeland." Francisca settled in Bogotá and died a few years later in the nearby town of Tocaima, Cundinamarca, Colombia (established in 1544). 
Juan Muñoz de Collantes was the son of Francisco Muñoz, a squire for the captaincy of the 2nd Marquis of Mondejar, and Juana de Fuente. Besides his relationship with Francisca Inga, Juan also had a Spanish wife and another Indian mistress. He ruled over the encomienda of Chia near Bogotá, and served as Bogotá's regidor (alderman, 1543, 1554, 1555, 1559), alcalde (city magistrate, 1547, 1551, 1558), procurador (city spokesman, 1550), and the accountant of the New Kingdom of Granada (1554). Juan raised pigs and grew wheat and other crops, and in a 1548 document he requested to import six African slaves to work his lands. I don't know how many African and Indian people were exploited by Juan, but there's no doubt he was a cruel master. Surviving court documents from 1553-1555 show Juan was accused of mistreating the Indians on his encomienda and ordering some of his Indian workers to steal crops from his neighbors.
~ Francisca Inga and Juan Muñoz de Collantes had one daughter:
1. Mencia de Collantes (born in Cuzco, Peru), whose family continues below.

Túpac Inca Yupanqui, the royal grandfather of Francisca Inga, from "El primer nueva crónica y buen gobierno" (c.1615) by indigenous writer Guamán Poma.

~ Pedro Inga (1495?-1600), an Inca noble and the brother of Francisca Inga, took arms against the Spanish when they invaded Peru. Later, Pedro converted to Catholicism, accompanied his sister Francisca Inga and niece Mencia Collantes to Colombia, and settled in Bogotá. He married twice and had two daughters in Peru and two sons in Colombia. In a 1575 document, Pedro said that he was over 80 years old, a Christian, and did not know how to write. Pedro testified that he was with Captain Diego de Sandoval when he conquered Quito, Ecuador in 1533-1534, serving as a guard for his cousin Francisca Coya, a daughter of the great Inca Huaina Capac, and other daughters of caciques. It's possible these noblewomen were escaping the Inca Atahualpa, who waged civil war and had many of his imperial family members killed. Francisca Coya, who bore Sandoval a daughter, was given royal treatment in Quito, and Pedro remembered her being carried in a hammock when she left her home and how people threw down their cloaks before her when she walked. 
~ Note that all the post-conquest Inca emperors were sons of Huaina Capac and first cousins of Francisca and Pedro Inga:
• Huáscar Inca (d. 1532),
• Atahaulpa (d. 1533) who was famously kidnapped and held ransom by Francisco Pizarro, after Pizarro was given Atahualpa's sister Inés as a mistress,
• Túpac Huallpa (d. 1533) who was the grandfather of the historian Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616), and
Manco Capac II (d. 1544), the maternal great-grandfather of Ana María Lorenza de Loyola Coya (1593-1630), the 1st Marchioness of Santiago de Oropesa. On her Spanish father's side, the marchioness was a great-great-niece of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit order, and a distant cousin of Che Guevara, the leader of Cuba's 1959 revolution. Her husband was a grandson of St. Francisco de Borja, a prominent Jesuit, who in turn was descended from both Pope Alexander VI (a.k.a. Rodrigo de Borja) and an illegitimate son of King Ferdinand V of Castilla y Aragón. The marchioness's direct descendants died out by the mid-1700s, and distant Borja cousins inherited the title of "Marquess of Santiago de Oropesa."
Manco Capac II was also the father of the last Inca emperor, Túpac Amaru (d. 1572), the supposed ancestor of Túpac Amaru II (1742-1781), who lead a fierce uprising against Spanish rule in Peru and was the namesake of the rapper Tupac Shakur.
~ According to Flórez de Ocáriz, Pedro Inga was 116 years old when he died in 1600. Even if that age is exaggerated by 10 to 25 years, Pedro must have seemed like a lone remnant of a distantly departed world.
Pedro Inga's name written by Francisco Velásquez, a Bogotá notary (1575). Pedro Inga did not know how to write.
"El Matrimonio de Martín García Oñas de Loyola con Clara Beatriz Qoya," in Cuzco's Iglesia de La Compañía de Jesús, depicts the arranged marriages of Ana María Lorenza de Loyola (upper right) and her mixed-race parents (left center), linking Inca and Spanish nobles by force.  

~ Captain Pedro Gómez de Orozco (born c.1517 in Fuenteovejuna, Andalucía [or possibly Basque territory], Spain; died after 1583 [1601?] in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia) was sort of the Forrest Gump of the conquest of Colombia, spilling blood at many events but not leaving a major mark. He first came to Santa Marta, Colombia in 1536 as part of the expedition of the Adelantado Pedro Fernández de Lugo, who died shortly after his arrival. Pedro then joined the expedition of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1536-1538), was present at the founding of Bogotá in 1538, and took part in defeating the Zaque of Hunza (a major Muisca leader, whose entire treasure was plundered by the Spanish) and the inhabitants of Chipatá. He also was part of murderous expeditions that resulted in the founding of Tocaima (1544) and Pamplona (1549) and helped quash the rebellions of Gonzalo Pizarro (1548), Álvaro de Oyón (1553), Francisco Hernández Girón (1554), and Lope de Aguirre (1561). He lived in Vélez in the early 1550s and by 1559 lived in Pamplona, where he served as the town council's alderman the following year and ruled over the encomienda of Cáchira. Later in life, Pedro attended the founding ceremonies of San Cristóbal, Venezuela (1561) and Ocaña, Colombia (1572). Avellaneda Navas writes that when the Pamplona authorities asked the locals what arms they could use to fight in the service of the King, "Pedro proudly presented his two sons, Pedro and Gonzalo, well mounted on their war horses."
~ Pedro married Isabel Domínguez and had three children:
1. Pedro Gómez de Orozco Domínguez, whose family continues below
2. Gonzalo Gómez de Orozco Domínguez, whose family continues below. 
3. Brígida de Figueroa, who was the direct ancestor of repressive Venezuelan dictator Juan Vicente Gómez (1857-1935).
Signature of Pedro Gómez de Orozco (1583)

~ Captain Francisco Hernández, a.k.a. Francisco Fernández (born c.1526 in Pedroche, Córdoba, Andalucía, Spain), is remembered as the founder of Ocaña, Norte de Santander, Colombia. A century after Francisco lived, Flórez de Ocáriz referred to him as "Francisco Fernández de Contreras," the name by which most historians know him today. Flórez de Ocáriz claimed that Francisco came to Colombia with Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and helped found Bogotá in 1538, but Francisco would have been too young. 
By 1542 the teenaged Francisco was in Colombia, embarking on his military career. He fought the Cegua Indians near Mompox and the Guane Indians near Vélez, nearly died from a poison arrow to the chest and a poison dart to the leg, and then battled Gonzalo Pizarro's rebellion in Peru. He took part in the expeditions that founded Pamplona (1549) and San Cristóbal (1558), and received a number of encomiendas from the Bogotá authorities in 1554 and 1556: Sucariba, Sucutu, Venumare, Butuca, Lechita, and Cania
Francisco received the title of teniente de corregidor of Pamplona in 1565 and embarked on three more military campaigns over the next four years, to Valledupar, to the area of the Carate Indians near Venezuela, and to found the port of Chingalé (now Puerto Wilches) on the Magdalena River.  
In 1570, Francisco Hernández led about 40 soldiers to found a town between Pamplona and Lake Maracaibo. By July, they had found a site with moderate climate among the peaceful Hacaritma Indians. The borders and streets of Ocaña were drawn in November, and the first Mass to mark Ocana's founding was held on December 14, 1570. Five years later, Francisco received the titles of Ocaña's teniente de gobernador, capitán general, justicia mayor, and presidente del cabildo. Francisco wrote his probanza de mérito (proof of merit) detailing his service to the Spanish crown in 1572, and then disappeared from the historical record after his youngest daughter's baptism in 1577. 
~ Francisco married Isabel de Rojas (born in Cuenca, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) and they had 9 children: 
1. Lorenzo Hernández
2. Francisco Hernández
3. Pedro Hernández
4. Ana de Rojas
5. MaríHernández
6. Juan Hernández
7. Isabel de Rojas
8. Juana de Rojas
9. Francisca de Rojas (baptized January 1577 in Pamplona), whose family continues below.  
Signature of Francisco Hernández, founder of Ocaña

~ Francisco Sotomayor and Ana Tellez de Figueroa lived in Extremadura, Spain and their children included: 
1. Fernando Sotomayor, whose family continues below.  

~ Alonso Garzón de Tahuste and María de Aguilar were presumably born in Spain and settled in Timaná, Huila, Colombia. Flórez de Ocáriz includes the poignant fact that they were married for over 50 years, at a time when the average life expectancy was about 35 years old. Their children were: 
1. Alonso Garzón de Tahuste (c.1555-c.1644), the parish priest at the Cathedral of Santa Fé de Bogotá for 59 years, who was a pioneer of liturgical music in Colombia. 
2. Juan Garzón de Tahuste, another priest. 
3. Francisco de Aguilar
4. Ana Garzón de Tahuste, whose family continues below.  

Second Generation
~ Alonso de Rueda married Elvira González and they had at least a son:
1. Cristóbal de Rueda González (born c.1569 in Priego de Córdoba, Andalucía, Spain; died 1610 in Tunja, Colombia), the first Colombian Rueda, whose family continues below.
Priego de Córdoba, Spain (Source: Google Maps)

~ Francisco Pérez de Rosales (who probably died in Tunja, Colombia sometime before 1620) married María López (a resident of Tunja, Colombia) and they had at least a daughter:
1. Damiana Pérez de Rosales (born 1571 in Tunja, died c.1647 in Tunja), 
whose family continues below. 

~ Inés Ortíz Galeano married Lorenzo Benítez Burros Bermejas Capotes y Galvanes (born c.1520), who was from Almendralejo, Extremadura, Spain and whose family originally came from Cabeza del Buey, Extremadura. Lorenzo came to Colombia around 1550, secured an encomienda to exploit the Indians of Caícota in 1556, and was among the residents of Vélez accused of mistreating Indians in 1561. He served as teniente de alcalde (lieutenant mayor) in the Río del Oro area from 1562-1572, before he was forced out of office. Lorenzo then inherited the encomiendas of Itierra, Misaque, Queregana, y Carahota from his father-in-law in 1576 and eventually had encomiendas in Yerva, Siscota, Sube, and Choagüete. Inés Ortíz was listed as a widow in the 1620 census of Tunja, living with her widowed daugher. Lorenzo and Inés had six children, order unknown:
1. Diego Ortíz Galeano, the eldest, whose family continues below. 
2. Fray Alonso Ortíz Galeano (born 1567 in Vélez; died 1639 in Guane), a Dominican priest who raised by a Guane wet nurse and became famous for speaking the language of the Guane Indians (and possibly his maternal grandmother).
3. Juana Galeano, who married Juan de Ugarte Larrinaga, an administrator of the "mitayos," Indian slaves forced to do labor under the "mita" system.
4. Ana Benítez Galeano, who first married Andrés de Buyza and then married Captain Martín Gómez, who died in the "War of the Yariguies," fighting the Yariguí Indians near Vélez. 
Ana Benítez was listed as a widow in the 1620 census of Tunja, living with her widowed mother, Inés Ortíz.
5. Pedro Ortíz Galeano
6. another son named Pedro or Lorenzo Ortíz Galeano

~ Captain Juan Delgado Matajudíos (born c.1542) lived in Colombia by 1561, married María de Poveda, and lived in Muzo, Boyacá, Colombia, which is renowned for having the world's best emerald mine. Unfortunately, the last name Matajudíos means "Jew-killer" and was apparently common among Spanish soldiers. In 1609, Juan testified in a legal case in Bogotá that "he knew many of the conquerors and settlers of this kingdom," and his father-in-law, Alonso de Poveda, came to Colombia as part of the expedition of Nikolaus Federmann (1536-1539). Juan should not be confused with the similarly named Tunja resident 
Juan Delgado de Vargas Matajudíos (1544-1622), seen immediately below. 
~ The children of Juan Delgado Matajudíos and María de Poveda included:
1. Catalina Delgado Matajudíos, whose family continues below.
2. Diego Delgado Matajudíos, a priest in Muzo.
Signature of Juan Delgado Matajudios (1609)

~ Juan Delgado de Vargas Matajudíos (1544-1622) was born and raised in Cumbres Mayores, Huelva, Andalucía, came to Colombia in 1588, served as a notary in Tunja, and married Ana de Poveda, María's sister. Given that this Juan de Vargas of Tunja and Juan Delgado of Muzo have such similar names and married sisters, they were likely related as well. However, Flórez de Ocáriz lists two different family trees for Juan de Vargas and does not clarify the relationship. Juan de Vargas was a very erudite man with a large personal library who got local craftsmen to paint decorative murals on his walls and ceilings that are based on the engravings in his books. These colorful murals combine Greco-Roman mythology and animals from around the world. Juan's house is now the Casa Museo Don Juan de Vargas, and visitors can still enjoy his unique murals
Murals of Juan de Vargas's coat of arms, top, and a rhinoceros based on Dürer's engraving, bottom. 

~ Pedro Gutiérrez de Aponte (born 1510 in possibly Aragón), married Luisa Vázquez, who was born in Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. Pedro may have accompanied Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada to Santa Marta, Colombia in 1537 and then was definitely part of Lebrón's expedition to Vélez in 1540. Pedro, who was illiterate, first received an encomienda of 400 Indian households in Muzo from General Pedro de Ursúa (who was later killed by Lope de Aguirre), and then in 1553 the Royal Chancery of Santa Fé awarded him with encomiendas in Choaguete and Babora. Pedro Gutiérrez and Luisa Vázquez, who were among the residents of Vélez accused of mistreating Indians in 1561, had one daughter: 
1. Francisca Gutiérrez de Aponte, whose family continues below.

~ Alonso de Soto was born in Valladolid, Castilla-Le
ón, Spain and came to Peru, where he helped defeat a rebellion against the viceroy at the Battle of Chupas (1542), but then fled to Colombia to escape another rebellion led by Gonzalo Pizarro, the younger brother of the conqueror Francisco Pizarro. Alonso married Mencia de Collantes, who was born in Cuzco, Peru and accompanied her parents to Bogotá in 1540 or 1541. The five children of Alonso and Mencia included:
1. María de Collantes, who was born in Bogotá, Colombia and whose family continues below.
2. Juan de Soto Collantes, who married Isabel de Penagos and fled Bogotá after murdering his brother-in-law, Pedro de Penagos. One of Juan's daughters, Sor Margarita de Penagos (died 1661), was a Dominican nun who Flórez de Ocáriz called "a woman of great charity and a helper of the sick and dying."
~ Mencia de Collantes had no children with her second husband, Francisco Martín. 

~ Alonso de Olivera Sarmiento married Mariana de Guerra y Valderrama and they had at least a son:
1. Captain Juan Sarmiento de Olivera, who was born in Jérez de la Frontera, Andalucía, Spain and settled in Vélez. His family continues below.

~ Francisco Sánchez Herreño married Catalina Hernández and their children included:
1. Francisco Sánchez de la Nava, a priest in Vélez, whose family continues immediately below.
2. Rodrigo Alonso de la Nava, who was a priest in Vélez.
3. Bartolomé Hernández Herreño, who was a priest in Vélez.
4. María González de la Nava, born in Vélez, who married Juan de Medel. 
Francisco also had an illegitimate son:
5. Captain Hernán Sánchez, who fought and helped defeat the Yariguies and Carares Indians.

Francisco Sánchez de la Nava (a.k.a. Francisco Sánchez Herreño) was a priest in Vélez who disregarded his vows of chastity and had a relationship with Beatríz de Torres, a mestiza woman from the Muisca/Chibcha settlement of Turmequé, and they had at least an illegitimate daughter:
1. Francisca González de la Nava, whose family continues below. 

~ Juan Bermúdez married Beatríz González and their children included: 
1. Juan Bermúdez Canario (born on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands), whose family continues below. 
2. Francisco Bermúdez

~ Gonzalo Hernández Gironda was a conquistador who may have accompanied Jiménez de Quesada to Colombia. He ended up with an encomienda named Queca near Bogotá and helped prosecute Indians who held a non-Christian ceremony in 1563. Gonzalo married Beatríz Arias and after her death entered a Carmelite convent. However, the convent had been founded without permission of the king and church officials and was soon disbanded. Gonzalo then spent the rest of his days in the convent of San Agustín in Bogotá. Gonzalo Hernández Gironda and his wife Beatríz Arias had a daughter: 
1. Inés de Salazar (born in the Canary Islands), whose family continues below. 

~ Pedro de la Parra and his wife Catalina Vázquez lived in Arévalo, Ávila, Castilla-León, Spain, and their children included: 
1. Antonio de la Parra, whose family continues below. 

~ Gonzalo Hernández Cano (a.k.a. Gonzalo Cano) and his wife Juana lived in Azuaga, Badajoz, Spain during the late 1500s, when it was one of the largest towns in the region of Extremadura and a center for textiles and dye manufacturing. Azuaga was named by the Arabs after the Berber tribe Al-Zuwaga and famed for having a chapter of the prestigious Orden de Santiago. Many azuagueños named Cano who were probably relatives settled in the Americas, including García Hernández de Merchán Cano (born c.1540), who settled in Pasto, Colombia and whose descendants were named Merchancano.  
The children of Gonzalo and Juana included: 
1. Isabel García Cano, whose family continues below. 
Azuaga, Spain (Source: Google Maps)

~ Pedro de Gorostizaga married María de Zárate on June 8, 1582 (several months before the start of the Gregorian calendar!) in the Iglesia de San Vicente Mártir de Abando in Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. In the Basque language of Euskera, the surname "Gorostizaga" or "Gorostiaga" means place (aga) of the holly (gorosti). The children of Pedro and María included: 
1. Marina de Gorostizaga, whose family continues below. 

~ Miguel Fernández (or Hernández) and Juana de Peñalosa lived in Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain in the early 1500s. Their children included: 
1. Bernardino Fernández de Peñalosa, whose family continues below. 

~ Anton Esteban Rangel was a Maestre de Campo and a founder of Pamplona, Colombia. Genealogists say his wife was Juana Rangel, and his children included: 
1. Elvira Rangel, whose family continues below. 

~ Fernando de Sotomayor (born in Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain; died 1599 in Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia) was according to Flórez de Ocáriz an encomendero in "the city of Nuestra Señora de Altagracia de los Utagaos," which I intrepret as Nuestra Señora de Altagracia de Sumapáz (now Fusagasugá), which was in the territory of the Sutagaos Indians. Fernando married Leonor de Figueroa and their children included: 
1. Pedro de Sotomayor, whose family continues below. 

~ Martín Calderón (born in La Mancha, Spain) married Ana Garzón de Tahuste and their children included: 
1. Ana Garzón de Tahuste, whose family continues below. 

Third Generation 

Cristóbal de Rueda (born c.1569 in Priego de Córdoba, Andalucía, Spain; died 1610 in Tunja) was a merchant who founded the Rueda family in Colombia. He lived in Tunja by 1593 and married Damiana Pérez de Rosales (born 1571 in Tunja; died c.1647 in Tunja). Their children included:
1. Marcelo de Rueda Rosales (born 1593 in Tunja)
2. Juana de Rueda Rosales (baptized 1596 in Tunja)
3. Cristóbal de Rueda Rosales (born or baptized 1596 in Tunja), whose family continues below.
4. Elvira de Rueda Rosales (born 1603 in Tunja)
5. Alonso de Rueda Rosales (born 1605 in Tunja; died April 1681 in Moncora), whose family continues below.
6. María de Rueda Rosales (born 1607 in Tunja)
7. Juan de Rueda Rosales, who was living in 1620 but died before his mother. In her will, Damiana wrote she had several children who died before her. 
Tunja, Colombia (Source: Google Maps)

~ Diego Ortíz Galeano, who by 1607 still owned the encomiendas of Misaque and Yerva, married Catalina Delgado Matajudíos and their children included:
1. Inés Benítez Galeano, a nun at the Convent de la Concepción in Tunja, Boyacá.
2. Lorenzo Felipe Benítez Galeano, whose family continues below. 
3. Fray Joseph Ortíz Galeano, who was an Augustinian monk and a prior. 
4. Pedro Ortíz Galiano Matajudíos (born c.1618), who married and had a family.

~  Captain Pedro de Ardila came from Castilla la Vieja, Spain and arrived at Vélez in 1540 with Governor Lebrón, where he led the infantry and served as regidor (alderman). Pedro owned an encomienda in Choaguete and a gold mine near Bucaramanga. The Bogotá authorities heard that Pedro forced the Indians of his encomienda to work in his mine, and after a long court case (1572-1576) he was fined 70 pesos in 20-karat gold. 
As a relatively older man, Pedro married Francisca Gutiérrez de Aponte, the daughter of another veteran of Lebron's expedition, and had nine children:
1. Pedro de Ardila, a magistrate of Vélez.
2. Baltazar de Ardila, who never married. 
3. Juan de Ardila, who married Gabriela de Bahamonde and had a family.
4. Eufemia de Ardila, who never married. 
5. María de Ardila y Miranda, who first married Andrés Hernández de Abrego and then married Alonso Pardo de Moya, and had families with both husbands. 
6. Ana de Ardila, who never married. 
7. Luisa de Ardila, who married Captain Diego Ruíz de la Peña Montoya (b.1575). One of their sons, Juan de la Peña Montoya, went back to Spain to fight in the army of King Felipe IV, helped defeat the French in the Battle of Fuenterrabía (1638) and was killed while fighting in Catalonia in 1640. The Franco-Spanish War dragged on until 1659, when the peace treaty resulted in the marriage of Louis XIV of France and Infanta María Teresa of Spain. 
8. Melchora de Ardila, who never married. 
9. Lucía de Ardila y Aponte, whose family continues below.

~ Captain Juan Sarmiento de Olivera (or Olvera) was born in Jérez de la Frontera, Andalucía, Spain, came to the New World around 1590, and married Francisca González de la Nava in Vélez around 1600. Juan and a man who became his son-in-law, Juan Díaz Bermúdez, were granted royal permission in 1609 to have Indians work on their haciendas in Vélez. There were five daughters and two sons of Juan Sarmiento and Francisca González (read the previous blog post for more information), and they were: 
1. María Sarmiento de Díaz (a.k.a. Antonia Sarmiento de Olivera), whose family continues below.
2. Catalina Sarmiento de Olivera, whose family continues below. 
3. Juana Sarmiento de Quiñónes, whose family continues below. 
4. Margarita Sarmiento de Rueda, whose family continues below.
5. Leonor Sarmiento de Mantilla, who married a Spaniard, Francisco Mantilla de los Rios y Palacios (c.1608-1679), the founder of Girón, and had a family.
6. Alonso Sarmiento de Olivera, whose family continues below.
7. Fray Francisco Sarmiento de Olivera, a priest in Girón.
Juan Sarmiento's signature (1627)

Juan Bermúdez Canario (born in Tenerife, Canary Islands) married Inés de Salazar (born in the Canary Islands) and their children included: 
1. Antonio Bermúdez, who inherited an encomienda in Queca from his maternal grandfather, Gonzalo Hernández Gironda, following a lawsuit with his stepfather lasting from 1568-1572.  
2. Beatríz Bermúdez
3. Gonzalo Bermúdez de Salazar (c.1550-1625), a priest in Bogotá who famously sermonized and taught in the Chibcha language. 
4. Isabel de Salazar
5. Juan Díaz Bermúdez (born in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Andalucía, Spain), whose family continues below. 
6. Francisca Bermúdez 
~ After Juan Bermúdez's death, Inés de Salazar married Diego de Vergara, an attorney and encomendero who lived in Bogotá, and they had another 11 children. Diego de Vergara accused two high Bogotá officials of raping his daughter and traveled to Spain for a prolonged legal battle that killed his career. In 1586, the courts ordered that Diego be exiled to Florida, but (according to Flórez de Ocáriz) Diego died in Sevilla.

~ Antonio de la Parra was probably born in Arévalo, Ávila, Spain and moved to Azuaga, Badajoz, where he married Isabel García Cano on September 12, 1604. 
Either Antonio or Isabel was the sibling or close relative of Juan Ortíz de la Maza, who was the Grand Inquisitor of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Cartagena from 1640-1643 (which dumbfounds me, their Jewish descendant, by the way). 
The children of Antonio de la Parra and Isabel García Cano included:
1. Gonzalo de la Parra Cano (died by 1664), who lived in Azuaga and married María de la Vera Aldana on September 22, 1628. One of their sons, Francisco Cano de Aldana (born c.1629), traveled to Panama in 1664 as the servant of Dr. Rodrigo del Corro Carrascal, the oidor (judge) of the Real Audencia of  Panamá. Francisco was described as medium height with a scar over his right eye. 
2. Antonio de la Parra Cano, who married Inés Ortíz in 1641 in Azuaga. 
3. Juan de la Parra Cano (baptized August 14, 1625 in Azuaga, Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain; died c.1699 in San Gil, Colombia), who called the Inquisitor Juan Ortíz his "uncle," and whose family continues below.
The 1604 marriage record of Antonio de la Parra and Isabel Garcia Cano. Shakespeare's "Othello" premiered the same year they married and Cervantes's "Don Quijote" was published the following year. 

~ Martín Sánchez de Cozar married Isabel Gómez Pabón and their children included: 
1. Cecilia González de Cozar (baptized August 30, 1635 in Guane), whose family continues below. 
2. María de Cozar, whose family continues below.
3. Martín Sánchez de Cozar (born c.1644), who served as the alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1707. 

~ A Guane Indian woman who lived in the town of Guane, whose name is lost to history, had at least a daughter: 
1. Madalena López (born early 1600s; probably died 1655 in Chanchón, now Socorro), whose family continues below. 

~ Francisco de Uribe married Marina de Gorostizaga on December 4, 1607 in the Iglesia de los Santos Juanes in Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Their children included: 
1. Pedro de Uribe Salazar, whose family continues below. 

~ Pedro de Amaya married Agustina de Villaroel in Spain and their children included: 
1. Juan de Amaya Villaroel (born in Arcos de la FronteraAndalucía, Spain; died c.1689 in San Gil, Colombia), whose family continues below. 

~ Alonso Hernández Mohedano y Blasco, who was born in Mérida, Extremadura, Spain and was a "close relative" of the humanist Benito Arias Montano, married María de Collantes, who was born in Bogotá. Their 14 children included:
2. Catalina de Collantes, the mother of Bishop Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita of Santa Marta (1624-1688), the author of "Historia general de las conquistas del Nuevo Reyno de Granada."
4. Olaya Collantes (1614-1690), who married Pedro Correa and was a foremother of the elite of Antioquia, Colombia. Presidents of Colombia who are descended from Olaya include Pedro Nel Ospina, Mariano Ospina Pérez, and Alfonso López Michelsen. The painter Fernando Botero (born 1932) is Olaya's 9th-great-grandson and may be her most accomplished descendant.
5. Ana Blasco, whose family continues below.

Pedro Gómez de Orozco Domínguez is in my opinion the direct-male ancestor of the Acevedo family of Santander, Colombia, as opposed to his brother Gonzalo, immediately seen below. Pedro is named in the only historical source I've found on Acevedo genealogy, the 1809 application of Pedro de Acevedo y Tejada (1799-1827) to attend the Colegio del Rosario in Bogotá. Following the customs of this repressive time, young Pedro de Acevedo had to submit a genealogy to prove his "old Christian" Spanish ancestry in order to join the student body. The application transcribes genealogy from two older applications to the Colegio del Rosario, from Pedro de Acevedo's father, the future independista José de Acevedo y Gómez, and a paternal relation, the priest José Julián Acevedo de la Parra. The 1643 testament of a paternal ancestor, Pedro de Peñalosa Acevedo, is also quoted. Unfortunately the 1809 genealogy of Pedro de Acevedo is also full of inconsistencies and errors. 
Pedro Gómez de Orozco Domínguez (died c.1600), nicknamed "el mozo" (the young boy) since he was his father's namesake, married Francisca de Rojas (baptized January 1577 in Pamplona), and their children included: 
1. Francisco Gómez de Orozco y Rojas (baptized August 27, 1597 in Pamplona), whose family continues below. 

~ Gonzalo Gómez de Orozco Domínguez married Isabel de Acevedo, daughter of the conquistador Andrés de Acevedo, and their children included:  
1. Pedro de Acevedo (baptized October 11, 1591 in Pamplona), who marrieRafaela de Peñalosa on November 16, 1625 in Pamplona, and whose son, Juan de Acevedo y Peñalosa (baptized February 26, 1628 in Pamplona), married María Ana de Sotomayor y Blasco, according to some genealogists. This may be true, but the only historical document I have found so far on Acevedo genealogy shows a line of descent from Gonzalo's brother Pedro. 

~ Bernardino Fernández de Peñalosa (a.k.a. Bernardino de Peñalosa Acevedo) was born in Molina de Aragón, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain and acquired a license to journey to Peru on January 23, 1555 in Valladolid, Spain. The royal authorities also gave Bernardino and Fernando de Burgos, another resident of  Molina de Aragón, permission to arm themselves on their voyage to Peru and Chile with "4 swords, 4 daggers, 4 arquebuses, 4 shields, 4 montante swords, 4 [probably leather] coats and 2 breastplates, 4 gloves, 4 helmets and 2 crossbows." 
It's unclear whether Bernardino reached Peru, but by 1557 he had settled in Pamplona, Colombia, where he served as a public notary and a council clerk (escribano del cabildo). In 1559 he accompanied the conquistador Juan Maldonado to fight in the region of Trujillo, Venezuela and served as escribano in the newly founded town of Mérida, Venezuela. Bernardino returned to Mérida with the conquistador Ortún Velázquez de Velasco in 1563, where he served as escribano de residencia and set up encomiendas to enslave the local Indians. In 1583, Bernardino wrote a probanza de mérito (proof of merit) detailing his service to the Spanish crown. 
Bernardino married Elvira Rangel, a native of Almendralejo, Extremadura, Spain, in Pamplona and they had 14 children, of whom 4 daughters and 3 sons were still alive by 1583. Those children included: 
1. Elvira de Peñalosa Acevedo y Rangel, whose family continues below. 

~ Pedro de Sotomayor married Ana Garzón de Tahuste (died in Bogotá) and their children included: 
1. Alonso de Sotomayor Garzón de Tahuste, whose family continues below. 

Fourth Generation

Guane, Colombia, originally called "Moncora" until 1689
~ Alonso de Rueda Rosales (born c.1605 in Tunja; died April 1681 in Moncora), an exploitative slaveowner, married Margarita Sarmiento de Olvera (died c.1660). Their children included:
1. Marcela de Rueda Sarmiento (born c.1641; died before 1681), whose family continues below.   
2. Alonso de Rueda Sarmiento, a priest (baptized September 13, 1643 in Moncora; died before 1681)
3. Cristóbal de Rueda Sarmiento (baptized April 17, 1645 in Moncora; died before 1681), who married Francisca Sarmiento de Olvera y Cozar, daughter of Alonso Sarmiento. 
4. Bernardo de Rueda Sarmiento (born c.1646; died 1720 in San Gil), whose family continues below.
5. Pablo de Rueda Sarmiento (died c.1694 in San Gil)
6. Felipe de Rueda Sarmiento
7. María de Rueda Sarmiento (baptized April 20, 1652 in Moncora; died before 1681)
8. Bárbara de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1657; baptized April 15, 1659 in Moncora; died before 1681), whose family continues below. 
9. Nicolás de Rueda Sarmiento (c.1657-c.1715), a founder of San Gil. 
10. Francisco de Rueda Sarmiento (born c.1657; died c.1703 in San Gil)
~ Alonso de Rueda Rosales had an illegitimate daughter: 
1. Catalina de Rueda, who married Salvador de Medina and whose daughter, Antonia de Medina, is an heir in Alonso's 1681 will. 
~ Margarita also had an illegitimate daughter: 
1. Francisca de la Peña Montoya (who is also called "Fulana Sarmiento" in another source). Her family continues below.
~ Alonso de Rueda married Gerónima Ramírez de Poveda around 1659, after the death of Margarita, and had three more children: 
1. Juan de Rueda Ramírez (born 1661; baptized 1664 in Moncora)
2. José de Rueda Ramírez (born 1664; baptized 1666 in Moncora)
3. María de Rueda Ramírez (baptized 1671 in Moncora) 

~ Catalina Sarmiento de Olvera and her first husband, Cristóbal de Rueda Rosales, the son of the Spanish immigrant, had at least six children (order uncertain):
1. Juan de Rueda Sarmiento, a priest first in Bucaramanga and then Curití.
2. José de Rueda Sarmiento (born c.1635; died c.1702 in San Gil), who served as the alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1699. 
3. Francisca de Rueda Sarmiento, whose family continues below. 
4. Ana de Rueda Sarmiento (baptized April 14, 1636 in Moncora)
5. Beatríz de Rueda Sarmiento (baptized March 26, 1638 in Moncora)
6. Cristóbal de Rueda Sarmiento (baptized March 26, 1638 in Moncora)

Catalina Sarmiento then was married around 1640 in Vélez to Captain Manuel Gómez Romano, a.k.a. Manuel Currea Betancur (born c.1616 in Portugal), and they lived into the 1680s. The surname Currea stems from the border of Galicia and Portugal, and Betancur/Betancourt was originally the Norman surname Bettencourt, an old French family with an extensive Portuguese branch. Many "Portuguese" in the New World were actually conversos, recent Christians of Jewish ancestry, but that cannot be assumed of every Portuguese settler. Some of the descendants of Manuel and Catalina used the last name "Gómez Romano," while others used the last name "Gómez Currea," "Gómez Currea Betancourt," or "Currea Betancur." 
The children of Manuel and Catalina included (order unknown):
1. Juana Francisca Gómez Romano y Sarmiento, the first wife of Gabiel Angel Ortíz Navarro (born c.1649 in Sevilla, Andalucía, Spain), whose family continues below. Some sources falsely confuse her with Francisca Gómez Romano who married Francisco Benítez and whose children were baptized in Socorro around 1700. 
2. Alonso Gómez Romano y Sarmiento.
Ignacio Currea Betancur, a.k.a. Ignacio Gómez Sarmiento (born c.1643; died 1724 in San Gil), who married Francisca Sarmiento de Olvera and whose last testament mentions that his father Manuel was born in Portugal. Ignacio served as the alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1702. 
4. Catalina Gómez Romano y Sarmiento (baptized September 17, 1646 in Moncora). She married twice, first to Juan Ferreira and then to Diego de Uribe Salazar (baptized 1635 in Moncora). Her descendants by Diego de Uribe include the immortal poet José Asunción Silva (1865-1896).
5. Manuel Gómez Romano y Sarmiento (born c.1650; died February 6, 1732 in San Gil), whose family continues below.

6. María Gómez Romano de Gómez de Orozco (baptized April 1, 1650 in Moncora), whose descendants include politicians Pedro Fermín de Vargas (1762-1813) and Salvador Camacho Roldán (1827-1900), the Count of Cuchicute José María de Rueda y Gómez (1871-1945), and the writer Tomás Rueda Vargas (1879-1943).
7. Leonardo Currea Betancourt (born c.1655), an attorney who assisted with the legal founding of the town of Santa Cruz y San Gil de Baeza (now shortened to San Gil) in 1689, secured a royal coat of arms for San Gil in 1694, and served as alcalde ordinario mas antiguo of San Gil in 1691 and 1716. He married Paula de la Parra Cano y Benítez on August 30, 1679 in Moncora.  

~ Juan Díaz Bermúdez was born in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Andalucía, Spain and settled in the outskirts of Vélez, Colombia. In 1609, Juan co-wrote a petition with Juan Sarmiento de Olvera for royal permission to have Indians work on their haciendas in Vélez. Juan Díaz later married Juan Sarmiento's daughter, María Sarmiento de Olvera, and had children well into his old age, including:
1. Martín Díaz Sarmiento (baptized January 4, 1633 in Moncora), whose family continues below.
2. Francisco Díaz Sarmiento, whose children were the "Díaz del Castillo" family.
3. María Díaz Sarmiento (baptized 1637 in Moncora)
4. Catarina Díaz Sarmiento (baptized December 29, 1640 in Vélez), whose family continues below.
5. Gracia 
Díaz Sarmiento (baptized September 12, 1643 in Vélez; buried August 14, 1733 in Girón), whose family continues below.
6. Alonso Díaz Sarmiento (baptized July 26, 1649 in Girón)

~ Juana Sarmiento de Olvera married Lázaro de Quiñones Rincón, who was from Sevilla, Andalucía, Spain, and their children included:
1. Juana de Quiñones, whose family continues immediately below. 

2. Lázaro de Quiñones (baptized August 15, 1646 in Girón)

~ Juana de Quiñones married Andrés Rodríguez de la Cruz and lived in Girón. In 1669, Juana reported that her husband had abandoned her, and asked authorities for permission to take control of his real estate and livestock. They had one daughter:
1. Úrsula de Quiñones (baptized November 14, 1659 in 
Girón; possibly buried Februray 7, 1744 in Girón), whose family continues below. 

~ Diego Martínez de Ponte and Catalina Inclán de Estrada were natives of the Oviedo region of Asturias, Spain who married and who had at least a son: 
1. Luis Martínez de Ponte (born c.1636 in Pravia, Asturias, Spain), whose family continues below.

~ Alonso Sarmiento de Olvera, an infantry captain who fought the Yariguíes Indians and later helped settle Girón, married Cecilia González de Cozar (baptized August 30, 1635 in Guane) and their children included:
1. Juan Sarmiento, who was a bachiller and priest by 1681. 

2. Cecilia Sarmiento de Olvera (born 1661; baptized 1664 in Moncora), whose family continues below.
3. Alonso Sarmiento de Olvera (born c.1664; died 1754 in Barichara), who was a founder of San Gil and served as a regidor.
4. Francisca Sarmiento de Olvera (baptized 1665 in Socorro), who married Ignacio Currea Betancur.  
5. Tomás Sarmiento de Olvera (born 1669; baptized 1670 in Moncora; died c.1745 in San Gil), a founder of San Gil.

~ Lorenzo Felipe Benítez Galeano married Lucía de Ardila y Aponte (a.k.a. Lucía de Aponte y Miranda) on August 8, 1622 in Vélez, and their children included:
1. Catalina Benítez Galeano (baptized 1623 in Vélez), who married Juan de la Parra Cabeza de Vaca, a criollo from Tunja.
2. Baltazar Benítez Galeano (baptized 1625 in Vélez)
3. Francisca Benítez Galeano (baptized December 1, 1627 in Vélez), whose family continues below.
4. Eufemia Benítez Galeano (baptized 1631 in Vélez), who never married.

~ Juan de la Parra Cano (baptized August 14, 1625 in Azuaga, Extremadura, Spain; died c.1699 in San Gil, Colombia) came to Colombia and eventually became a "mayor of the Santa Hermandad" (keeper of the peace) in Vélez, and in 1673 was given an encomienda in Sumita, Sacane, Guacha and Taquica. He later became one of the founders of San Gil and an encomendero in Charalá. Juan married Francisca Benítez Galeano (baptized 1627 in Vélez) and their children included (order unknown): 
1. Juan de la Parra Benítez, whose family continues below.
2. Lorenzo de la Parra Benítez
3. José de la Parra Benítez (baptized 1657 in Moncora, now Guane)
4. Antonio Tomás de la Parra Benítez (born c.1657; died 1729 in San Gil), whose family continues below. 
5. Catarina de la Parra Benítez (born 1659; baptized February 6, 1662 at age 2 years, 6 months in Moncora; died August 16, 1729 in San Gil), whose family continues below.
6. Magdalena de la Parra Benítez.
7. Bartolomé de la Parra Benítez (born 1665; baptized 1666 in Moncora).
8. Francisco de la Parra Benítez (born c.1666; died 1739 in San Gil).
9. Juan de la Parra Benítez (born c.1667, another son with the same name, according to Flórez de Ocáriz).
10. Paula de la Parra Cano
Signature of Juan de la Parra Cano (1687)

~ Captain Juan de Amaya Villaroel (born in Arcos de la Frontera
Andalucía, Spain; died c.1689 in San Gil, Colombia) was a royal lieutenant at the royal mines in Bucaramanga. He married Bárbara de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1657; died before 1681). Their children included: 
1. Margarita de Amaya y Rueda (born 1672; baptized February 1, 1674 at age 1 year and 11.5 months in Guane), whose family continues below.
2. Pedro de Amaya y Rueda (born c.1675)

3. Tomás de Amaya y Rueda, who married in 1694.
~ Juan de Amaya Villaroel also had an illegitimate daughter, Agustina de Amaya (born c.1667) 

~ Manuel Gómez Farelo was born in Portugal, came to Colombia, and married Lucía González de Azcárraga, who was born in Vélez, Colombia. Their birthplaces are mentioned in their son Pablo's will. The 20th-century historian Ramiro Gómez Ramírez falsified a backstory for Manuel and Lucía, saying they were born in Spain and settled in Girón since they were "attracted by mining veins." Their children included:
1. Pablo Gómez Farelo y González (baptized January 25, 1635 in Guane; buried June 1705 in Guane), whose family continues below.
2. Leonor Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1637 in Guane)
3. Pedro Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1639 in Guane)
4. Manuel Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1642 in Guane)
5. Juana Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1644 in Guane)
6. Lorenzo Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1648 in Guane)
7. Francisco Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1651 in Guane)
8. Lucía Gómez Farelo y González (baptized 1654 in Guane)

~ Gonzalo de Ardila, who was probably the grandson of the conquistador Pedro de Ardila, married Madalena Mejía and their children included: 
1. Juan de Ardila (died c.1715 in San Gil), whose family continues below. 
2. Gonzalo de Ardila (died c.1714 in San Gil)

~ Madalena López (born early 1600s; probably died 1655 in Chanchón, now Socorro), the mestiza daughter of a Guane Indian woman, whose children included: 
1. Ana de Ribera, whose family continues below. 
2. María de Ribera

Gonzalo de Pineda married Micaela de Meneses, the sister of Jerónima Meneses de Moreno, on January 10, 1660 in Chanchón (now Socorro), and their children included:
1. Juana de Pineda (born 1660s; buried July 20, 1725 in Guane), whose family continues below.
2. Ana de Pineda (baptized 1665 in Chanchón)
3. Josefa de Pineda (born 1665, baptized 1666 in 

~ José Martín Moreno (died c.1696 in San Gil), an exploitative slaveowner who did not know how to write, was married for 26 years to Leonor Gómez. They had eight children, including Manuel, Pedro, Juana, Madalena, Francisca, Ana, and Luisa Moreno. 
~ After his first wife died, José married Jerónima Meneses (probably died 1714 in Vélez), on September 5, 1673 in Chanchón (now Socorro). Jerónima, the sister of Micaela Meneses de Pineda, may have been the same woman mentioned in a 1712 lawsuit over inheritance as the cousin of Alonso de Sanabria of Vélez, who said his great-grandfather, Francisco de Sanabria, was born in Sagra, Alicante, Spain. José Moreno and Jerónima Meneses had 10 children: 
1. Cristóbal Moreno Meneses, who died young. 
2. Josefa Martín Moreno Meneses (born 1675, baptized April 5, 1676 in Chanchón at age 6 months; died c.1765 in San Gil), whose family continues below.
3. Manuel Moreno Meneses (born 1677; baptized 1679 in Chanchón)
4. Cristóbal Moreno Meneses, a second son with the same name. 
5. Lorenza Moreno Meneses 
6. Manuela Moreno Meneses 
7. María Moreno Meneses (baptized 1682 in Chanchón) 
8. Teresa Moreno Meneses 
9. InéMoreno Meneses 
10. Juana María Moreno Meneses

~ Felipe de Arenas married María de los Ángeles y Porras, who may descended from María de los Ángeles, the daughter of conquistador Juan de Castro, who went on Federman's expedition to Colombia (1536-1539) and Beatríz Osorio. Felipe and María had at least one son: 
1. Bernardo de Arenas (died 1704 in San Gil, Colombia), whose family continues below. 

~ José Antonio Márquez de la Plata y Arévalo (born 1628 in Sevilla, Andalucía, Spain), according to historian Horacio Rodríguez Plata, was a Spanish silversmith whose descendants have the surname "Plata" (silver). Rodríguez Plata claims the Márquez de la Plata family owned a mine in Luaces, Galicia around 1500, and then moved to Andalucía in the 1580s. José Antonio married Ana María Domínguez in 1659 in Sevilla and their children included:
1. Francisco Félix de la Plata y Domínguez (born c.1661 in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Andalucía, Spain; died 1730 in Socorro, Colombia), who came to Colombia in 1682 and whose family continues below.

~ Captain Pedro de Uribe Salazar (born in Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain) probably came to Colombia in the 1620s and married Ana de Sanabria Pavón, the daughter of Juan Jiménez Pavón and Ana de Sanabria, on December 29, 1630 in Vélez, Colombia. The last name Uribe is Basque, stemming from two Euskera words, "behe" (lower part) and "uri" (town). The more famous Uribe family of Antioquia stems from a different Basque ancestor, Martín de Uribe Echaverría (b.1656), and their descendants include General Rafael Uribe Uribe and President Álvaro Uribe Vélez. Pedro's last name "de Uribe Salazar" was a fanciful attempt to link his lineage with the noble Salazar families of Bizkaia and Navarra. Pedro and Ana had at least seven children, including: 
1. Diego de Uribe Salazar (baptized 1635 in Moncora) 
2. Antonia de Uribe Salazar, whose family continues below. 
3. Pedro de Uribe Salazar, whose family continues below. 
4. Juana de Uribe Salazar (died c.1702 in San Gil), who married Juan Martínez de Aparicio.

~ Francisco Gómez de Orozco y Rojas (baptized 1597 in Pamplona), inherited the encomienda of Cáchira from his conquistador grandfather on March 26, 1601. He married Elvira de Peñalosa Acevedo y Rangel and their children included: 
1. Pedro de Peñalosa Acevedo, who used the surname of his mother and whose family continues below. 

~ Alonso de Sotomayor Garzón de Tahuste and Ana Blasco married in 1640 in Bogotá and their children included: 
1. María Ana de Sotomayor y Blasco, whose family continues below. 
Genealogías de Santa Fé de Bogotá says that María Ana's parents were Spaniards, but that is based on an erroneous 1809 genealogy of the Acevedo family, mentioned above. 

Fifth Generation

Ceibas dating from the early 1700s in Parque El Gallineral in San Gil, Colombia.
~ Bernardo de Rueda Sarmiento (born c.1646; died 1720 in San Gil), an exploitative slaveowner who signed San Gil's founding petition in 1688, married his cousin Cecilia Sarmiento (born 1661; baptized 1664 in Moncora). He served as the alcalde ordinario mas antiguo of San Gil in 1690. Some published sources erroneously say Bernardo was the son of Nicolás de Rueda y Sarmiento and Gabriela Sarmiento y Cozar, but that Bernardo was born around 1686. The children of Bernardo and his wife Cecilia included:
1. Alonso de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1678, baptized September 10, 1680 at age 2 in Guane; died January 5, 1721 in San Gil), whose family continues below.
2. Juan de Rueda Sarmiento, who married Ana María Gómez Farelo y Pineda (died 1727 in Guane) in 1704 in Guane.
3. Josefa de Rueda Sarmiento (died 1728 in Guane), who married Juan Gómez Farelo y Pineda (1677-1762) in 1704 in Guane.
4. Miguel de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1681, baptized 1683 in Guane)
5. Juan Manuel 
de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1682, baptized 1683 in Guane), who may be "Juan" listed above. 
6. Cristóbal Javier de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1686, baptized April 2, 1687 at age 1 in Guane; buried June 15, 1747 in Guane), whose family continues below. In Volume 8 of Genealogías de Santa Fé de Bogotá, Cristóbal is falsely listed as the son of Alonso de Rueda Rosales, because Alonso had another son named Cristóbal, born about 40 years earlier.
7. Marcelo de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1689, baptized 1692 in San Gil; died 1758 in Guane)
8. Lucía de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1691, baptized 1692 at age 1 year and 5 months in Guane), whose family continues below. 

Gabriel Ángel Ortíz Navarro (born c.1649 in Sevilla, Andulcía, Spain), who served as the alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1708, first married Juana Gómez Romano, and their children included: 
1. Francisca Gabriela Ortíz Navarro (baptized April 6, 1687 in Guane; buried February 2, 1756 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Pablo Gómez Farelo (baptized January 25, 1635 in Guane; died 1705 in Guane) and Juana de Pineda (born 1660s; died 1725 in Guane) married on July 18, 1677 in Guane and their children included:
Juan Gómez Farelo y Pineda (baptized 1678 in Guane; died 1762 in Socorro) was first married in 1704 in Guane to Josefa de Rueda Sarmiento (died 1728 in Guane) and later remarried.
2. Luisa Gómez Farelo y Pineda (baptized 1683 in Guane)
3. Ana María Gómez Farelo y Pineda (born 1688; baptized 1689 in Guane; died 1727 in Guane), who married Juan de Rueda Sarmiento in 1704 in Guane.
4. Francisco Gómez Farelo y Pineda (buried June 5, 1732 in Girón), whose family continues below.
5. Bernardo Gómez Farelo
6. Jacinto José Gómez Farelo y Pineda (baptized June 13, 1697 in Girón), whose family continues below.
6. Lucía Gómez Farelo y Pineda (born 1699; baptized April 11, 1700 at age 11 months in Guane; buried October 11, 1795 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
7. Micaela Gómez Farelo y Pineda (buried October 16, 1737 in Guane), whose family continues below.
8. Pablo Antonio Gómez Farelo y Pineda (died 1766 in Barichara), a priest who led the parish of Zapatoca from 1760-1762. The historian Yoer Javier Castaño Pareja notes that Pablo was an exploitative slaveowner who in 1724 bought Rosa (born c.1705), who served as his housekeeper and herded his goats. In 1750, one of Rosa's goats escaped and injured the wife of a town official in Girón, and Rosa got into an argument with the injured woman. Rosa was then captured, jailed, not offered any help from a lawyer or her priestly master, and sentenced to 10 years' exile.   

~  Manuel Gómez Romano y Sarmiento (born c.1650; died February 6, 1732 in San Gil), a founder of San Gil, and Catarina de la Parra Benítez (born 1659; died August 16, 1729 in San Gil) married on August 30, 1679 in Moncora (now Guane). Manuel served as the alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1694, 1695, 1703, and 1705 and as alcalde provincial de la Santa Hermandad in 1717. The children of Manuel and Catarina included:
1. Pedro Gómez Romano de la Parra (born c.1680; baptized 1682 in Moncora, now Guane; died 1739 in San Gil).
2. Catalina Gómez Romano de la Parra (born c.1684; baptized 1685 in Moncora), whose descendants include the politician Salvador Camacho Roldán (1827-1900).
3. Francisca Gómez Romano de la Parra (born/baptized 1685 in Moncora).

4. Pablo Gómez Romano de la Parra (born 1687; baptized September 7, 1687 at age 2 months in Moncora; buried May 15, 1773 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
5. María Gómez Romano de la Parra (born/baptized 1689 in Moncora). 
6. Diego Gómez Romano de la Parra (born c.1693 in San Gil; baptized 1697 in San Gil; died 1772 in San Gil). Among his grandchildren were the "Tribune of the People" José Acevedo y Gómez (1772-1817) and the politicians Miguel Tadeo Gómez Durán (1784) and Diego Fernando Gómez Durán (1786-1853). The historian and writer Josefa Acevedo y Tejada (1803-1861) was his great-granddaughter.

7. Ignacio Gómez Romano, who married his cousin Francisca Sarmiento.

Signatures of Manuel Gómez Romano (1713), Pablo Gómez Romano (1740), and Francisco Javier Gómez Wandurraga (c.1799)

~ Juan de la Parra Benítez had at least a daugher, Catarina de la Parra Jaimes, whose family continues immediately below.

~ Miguel Ignacio de Aguiluz y Wandurraga, a.k.a. Miguel de Wandurraga, was of Basque origin and also spelled his name "Ubandurraga." His last names in Euskera are "Egiluz" (from hegi luze, meaning "long slope") and "Urandurraga" or "Undurraga" (meaning roughly "abundance of cliffs"). Miguel married Catarina de la Parra Jaimes, and their children included:
1. Rafaela Aguilus Wandurraga de la Parra (born c.1710 in San Gil; buried January 1780 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
2. Ignacio Javier Wandurraga de la Parra (born c.1723, baptized 1728 in San Gil)
3. Antonia Teresa Wandurraga de la Parra (born and baptized 1727 in San Gil)
4. Salvadora María Wandurraga de la Parra (baptized 1732 in San Gil)

Antonio Tomás de la Parra Benítez (born c.1657; died 1729 in San Gil), a founder of San Gil who served as the town's alcalde ordinario in 1711 and alcalde ordinario mas antiguo in 1713, married Margarita de Amaya y Rueda (born 1672) on January 7, 1685 in Moncora (now Guane), and they had five children: 
1. Juan de la Parra Amaya
2. Felipe de la Parra Amaya
3. Bárbara de la Parra Amaya, who married in 1718 Francisco Pradilla y Ayerbe (born 1673 in Borja, Zaragoza, Spain; died 1748 in Barichara), the founder of Barichara. One of their 12 children, José Martín Pradilla de la Parra (1720-1802), was Barichara's first parish priest. One great-grandson, Antonio María Pradilla Rueda (1822-1878), was president of the state of Santander and a minister for several Colombian presidents.
4. Francisca de la Parra Amaya, who married Juan del Castillo. 
5. María Rosa de la Parra Amaya (probably buried June 7, 1775 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.  

~ Juan de Ardila (died c.1715 in San Gil) first married Ana de Ribera on May 9, 1657 in Chanchón (now Socorro), celebrating a double wedding with Juan's brother, Gonzalo de Ardila, and Ana's sister, María de Ribera. The children of Juan and Ana included (order unknown): 
1. Alberto de Ardila y Ribera
2. María de Ardila y Ribera
3. Sebastián de Ardila y Ribera, who married María de la Parra Cano (daughter of Francisco de la Parra Cano y Benítez). 
4. Manuel de Ardila y Ribera, who married Margarita de la Parra Cano (daughter of Francisco de la Parra Cano y Benítez). 
5. Juan Gilberto de Ardila y Ribera (born c.1666, baptized 1667 in Chanchón)
6. Gertrudis de Ardila y Ribera, who married Captain Fernando de Luque y Luna. 
7. Felipe de Ardila y Ribera (born c.1669, baptized 1670 in Chanchón)
8. Juan de Ardila y Ribera (born 1671, baptized 1672 in Chanchón) 
9. Ciriaco de Ardila y Ribera (born c.1676, baptized 1677 in Chanchón) 
10. Cristóbal de Ardila y Ribera (born c.1678, baptized 1679 in Chanchón), whose family of revolutionaries continues below. 
11. Ana Magdalena de Ardila y Ribera
12. Pascuala de Ardila y Ribera, whose family continues below.
~ Juan de Ardila had a second marriage with Rosa Reina, and fathered one son, Juan 
José de Ardila. Juan then had a third marriage with Juana de Cardenas Zapata, resulting in four more children: Juan Cristóbal, Juan Bernardo, Juan Gerónimo, and Juana María de Ardila. 

~ Francisco Félix de la Plata y Domínguez (born c.1661 in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Andalucía, Spain; died 1730 in Socorro, Santander, Colombia) came to Cartagena in 1682, settled in Chanchón (now Socorro) in 1685 and became a military captain. In 1688 in Socorro, Francisco Félix married Josefa Martín Moreno (born 1675 in Chanchón; died c.1765 in San Gil), a.k.a. Josefa Moreno, and they had 13 children:
1. Hipólito José de la Plata Moreno (born 1690; baptized 1691 in Socorro; died 1763 in San Gil), the father of Salvador Plata y González (c.1740-1802), the richest man in Socorro. According to historian John Leddy Phelan, Salvador Plata was a reluctant leader in the Comuneros' revolt in 1781, but then enthusiastically led the party that captured Comunero leader José Antonio Galán.
2. Francisco Cayetano de la Plata Moreno
3. Simón Faustino de la Plata Moreno (born 6anuary 5, 1696; baptized August 15, 1696 at age 7 months and 10 days in Socorro; buried March 20, 1764 in Barichara), whose family continues below.

4. María Teresa de la Plata Moreno
5. Juan Bernardo de la Plata Moreno (baptized 1699 in Socorro), a twin. 
6. Pedro José de la Plata Moreno (baptized 1699 in Socorro), a twin who died young. 
7. Juana Josefa de la Plata Moreno
8. Manuel José de la Plata Moreno 
9. Francisco Matías de la Plata Moreno (born 1705; baptized June 9, 1705 at age 4 months in Socorro), whose family continues below. He was the father of a Comunero leader, Carlos José Plata Benítez, and the grandfather of another Comunero leader, José Vicencio Plata Uribe.
10. Ana María de la Plata Moreno (baptized 1708 in Socorro), a twin. 
11. Juan Antonio de la Plata Moreno (baptized 1708 in Socorro), a twin who died young.
12. Pedro 
José de la Plata Moreno
13. Pedro Antonio de la Plata Moreno (born and baptized 1712 in Socorro; died 1765 in San Gil) was the mayor of San Gil when he was stabbed to death by Pablo Mayorga, an Afro-Colombian described as "color pardo" (brown). Court documents suggest that Pedro had tried to seduce Mayorga's wife days before the stabbing. Later historians wrote that Pedro was stabbed by his own slave, which is false. Mayorga was sentenced to death in 1770 and died in jail the following year. Pedro was the grandfather of Antonia Santos Plata (1782-1819), the heroine and guerrilla leader who died for Colombia's independence, and the great-great-great-grandfather of el Conde de Cuchicute, José María de Rueda y Gómez (1871-1945). His descendants also include Presidents Eduardo Santos and Juan Manuel Santos and their families.
~ Josefa Mart
ín Moreno outlived all but five of her children: María Teresa Plata, Juan Bernardo Plata, Ana María Plata, Pedro José Plata, and Pedro Antonio Plata. 

~ Juan Francisco Benítez married Úrsula de Quiñones (baptized 1659 in Girón; possibly died 1744 in Girón), who also went by "Úrsula Rodríguez" and "Úrsula de la Cruz," and their children included: 
1. José Benítez (born 1679; baptized October 9, 1679 at age 4 months in Girón), whose family continues below.
2. María Benítez (baptized 1683 in Girón)
3. Miguel Gerónimo Benítez (baptized 1687 in Girón)
4. Juan 
Benítez (baptized 1690 in Girón)
5. Simona Benítez (baptized 1691 in Girón)

~ Luis Martínez de Ponte  [or Martínez de Aponte] (born in Pravia, Asturias, Spain; died c.1696 in San Gil, Colombia) and Marcela de Rueda Sarmiento (died before 1681) married c.1658 in Moncora and had 9 children: 
1. Diego Martínez de Ponte y Rueda (c.1658-c.1710)
2. Marcelo Martínez de Ponte y Rueda 
3. Margarita Martínez de Ponte y Rueda
4. Catalina Martínez de Ponte y Rueda (baptized 1665 in Moncora)
5. María Martínez de Ponte y Rueda (baptized 1666 in Moncora)
6. Damiana Martínez de Ponte y Rueda (born 1667; baptized December 28, 1669 at age 2 years and 8 months in Moncora; died 1725 in San Gil), whose family continues below. 
7. Alonso Martínez de Ponte y Rueda (born c.1670)
8. Fernando Martínez de Ponte y Rueda 
9. Luis Martínez de Ponte y Rueda (born c.1674)

~ Captain Martín Díaz Sarmiento (baptized 1633 in Moncora), who served as alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1694, married María Sánchez de Cozar and their children included: 
1. María Díaz y Cozar, whose family continues below. 
2. Feliciana Díaz y Cozar, who married Pablo de Rueda Rosales (died 1694), the son of Alonso de Rueda Rosales and Margarita Sarmiento. 

~ Juan Rodríguez Duran (born c.1631 in Garrovillas de Alconétar, Extremadura, Spain), a founder of San Gil, married Francisca de Rueda Sarmiento and their children included:
1. Cristóbal 
Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (born c.1654), whose family continues immediately below.
2. Juan Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (born c.1657; baptized January 6, 1659 at age 1 year and 8 months in Girón), whose family continues below. 
3. Clara Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (baptized 1660 in Girón)
4. José Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (died c.1737 in San Gil, Colombia), who married Josefa Moreno de Arroyo.

5. Domingo Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (baptized 1670 in Girón)

~ Cristóbal Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (born c.1654), a founder of San Gil, married his relative María Díaz y Cozar, and their children included: 
1. María Durán y Díaz (baptized September 9, 1680 in Guane), whose family continues below. 

~ Juan Rodríguez Durán y Rueda (born c.1657), a founder of San Gil who served as the town's alcalde ordinario mas antiguo in 1709, married his cousin Damiana Martínez de Aponte y Rueda (born 1667 in Moncora; died 1725 in San Gil) and their children included:
Juana Rodríguez Durán y Martínez (born c.1689; baptized April 24, 1691 at age 2 years in Guane), whose family continues immediately below. 

José Benítez (born 1679 in Girón) married Juana Rodríguez Durán y Martínez (born c.1689; baptized 1691 in Guane) and their children included:
1. María Teresa Benítez y Rodríguez Durán, whose family continues below.

~ Toribio González del Busto (born in Asturias) settled in Colombia and married Catarina Díaz Sarmiento (baptized 1640 in Vélez). Their children included:
1. Catalina González Díaz, whose family continues immediately below.
2. Toribio González Díaz (baptized 1662 in Girón)
3. Santiago González Díaz (born 1669; baptized April 1, 1671 at age 1 year and 10 months in Girón), whose family continues below.
4. Carlos González Díaz (baptized 1672 in Girón)
5. Eugenia González Díaz (baptized 1674 in Girón)
6. Juan González Díaz (baptized 1679 in Girón) 
7. Ana Toribia González Díaz (baptized 1681 in Girón)

~ Diego Serrano Solano, who married Catalina González del Busto y Díaz, may have part of the Serrano Cortés family, which had branches in Pamplona in the 1500s and Vélez and Socorro in the 1600s. These could also be two separate Serrano families. The children of Diego and Catalina included:
1. José Serrano Solano y González (born c.1681; buried January 17, 1755 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. Hipólita Serrano 
Solano y González (born c.1682; baptized April 26, 1683 at age 8 months in Girón; probably buried February 21, 1754 in Guane), whose family continues below. 
3. Simón Serrano Solano y González (baptized February 1685 in Girón) 
4. Salvadora Serrano Solano y González (baptized April 13, 1686 in Girón; buried April 10, 1758 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
5. Baltasar Serrano Solano y González (baptized March 1687 in Girón; died 1758 in Girón)
6. Ana Úrsula Serrano Solano y González (baptized April 21, 1696 in Girón; buried February 27, 1768), whose family continues below.

~ Francisca de la Peña Montoya (who is called "Fulana Sarmiento" in another source), had at least two children, order unknown:
1. María de Remolina, whose children had the surname "de los Reyes."
2. José de la Prada (died c.1704 in San Gil), whose family continues immediately below.

~ José de la Prada (died c.1704 in San Gil) married Teresa García de Sierra and their nine children included:
1. Miguel de la Prada García (born 1684, baptized 1686 in Girón), an exploitative slaveowner who owned two adult slaves and seven child slaves, according to Castaño Pareja. 
2. Josefa de la Prada García (born and baptized 1686 in Girón)
3. Pedro de la Prada García (born 1688; baptized December 26, 1690 at age 2 years in Girón; buried June 25, 1768 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
4. Francisca de la Prada García
5. Antonio de la Prada García
6. Agustina de la Prada García
7. José de la Prada García

~ Bernardo de Arenas (died 1704 in San Gil) first married María de Zabala, the daughter of Agustín de Zabala, and they had three children:
1. In
és de Arenas, who married Juan de Uribe Franco. 
2. Felipe de Arenas Zabala, whose family continues below. 
3. Lorenzo de Arenas
After his first wife's death, Bernardo married Micaela Ponce de Mendoza, and they had six children: 
4. María de Arenas Mendoza, whose family continues below. 
5. Matías de Arenas
6. Ana de Arenas
7. Juana de Arenas
8. Petronila de Arenas 
9. Ignacio de Arenas 

~ Juan de Vesga Santiago (born in Spain, died c.1684 in Girón, Colombia) married Antonia de Uribe Salazar (died c.1695 in San Gil) on May 26, 1651 in Chanchón (now Socorro). They had nine children, order unknown:
1. Bartolomé de Vesga Santiago 
2. Juan de Vesga Santiago
3. Simón de Vesga Santiago (baptized 1665 in Chanchón)
4. Pedro de Vesga Santiago
5. Nicolás de Vesga Santiago (born and baptized 1680 in Girón)
6. Francisca de Vesga Santiago
7. María de Vesga Santiago (died c.1691-1695), whose family continues below. 
8. María Pascuala de Vesga Santiago, whose family continues below.
9. Ana de Vesga Santiago
~ After her husband's death, Antonia de Uribe married José Durán, and they had no children.

~ Pedro de Uribe Salazar married Gracia Díaz Sarmiento (baptized 1643 in Moncora; died 1733 in Girón). The previous blog entry has more information on Gracia's decades of slave-owning and selling of child slaves. Their children included: 
1. Ana María de Uribe Salazar (baptized 1665 in Girón)
2. Francisco de Uribe Salazar (born c.1665, baptized 1667 in Girón)
3. María de Uribe Salazar (born c.1670, baptized 1671 in Girón)
4. Antonio de Uribe Salazar (born c.1672, baptized 1673 in Girón)
5. Pedro de Uribe Salazar (born c.1678, baptized 1679 in Girón)
6. Salvador de Uribe Salazar (born c.1678, baptized June 29, 1681 at age 3 years in Girón), whose probable family continues below.
7. Lorenzo de Uribe Salazar (baptized 1680 in Girón)

Pedro de Peñalosa Acevedo probably married María Ana de Sotomayor y Blasco. Flórez de Ocáriz mentions María Ana as the great-great-granddaughter of Francisca Inga but does not list her spouse. Pedro de Peñalosa Acevedo wrote his last will and testament on November 3, 1643 in the village of Chopo (now Pamplonita), near Pamplona, Colombia, and that document is quoted in the 1809 genealogy compiled for his descendant, Pedro de Acevedo y Tejada. The quoted testament names Pedro's wife as "María Ana de Sotomayor Mohedano de Blasco," but incorrectly says her parents were "Alonso Hernández de Sotomayor and Leonor de Figueroa." Alonso Hernández was María Ana's grandfather and Leonor de Figueroa was María Ana's great-grandmother. I assume these errors and others came from the transcribers in 1809, rather than the original testament. Genealogías de Santa Fé de Bogotá simply lists all the information in the 1809 genealogy, mistakes included. 
~ Contemporary sources like Geni.com claim María Ana married Juan de Acevedo y Peñalosa (baptized 1628 in Pamplona), but I am not aware of original documents that prove this link. A 1684 document from Pamplona mentions Juan de Peñalosa y Acevedo and his wife María de Sotomayor, but it's unclear whether María is my ancestor María Ana. 
~ In any case, María Ana's descendants used the last name Acevedo or Peñalosa interchangeably in the 17th and 18th centuries, but mostly used Acevedo by the 1800s. The children of Pedro de Peñalosa Acevedo and María Ana de Sotomayor probably included:
1. Pedro de Acevedo Peñalosa y Sotomayor, whose family continues below.

~ María Ortíz de Zárate (born and died in Colombia), an exploitative slaveowner whose last name was Basque, and her first husband (name unknown) had at least a son
1. Andrés Cortés de la Peñuela (buried December 12, 1775 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below. 
~ María's second husband was Diego Martínez de Aponte y Rueda (c.1657-c.1710), and their children included:
2. Diego Martínez y Zárate (baptized 1695 in Guane)
3. Marcela Martínez y Zárate (baptized 1696 in Guane)
4. Agustín Martínez y Zárate (baptized 1699 in Guane) 
5. Luis Martínez y Zárate (baptized 1701 in Guane)
6. María Martínez y Zárate (died c.1772-1777), whose family continues below. 
7. Martín Martínez y Zárate (baptized 1710 in Guane; died 1774 in Guane)
~ María married her third husband, Juan de León Santana, on January 20, 1716 in Guane. Juan was fined by authorities in 1723 for hiding slaves (who were probably smuggled). Before Juan paid his fine, he had two of his slaves stolen, so María sold two of her own slaves, "mulatos" named Leandro and Basilio, to pay the fine. María was listed as the godmother of various San Gil children until 1736. 

The supposed noble ancestry of the Ortíz de Zárate family
~ María Ortíz de Zárate was probably descended from Domingo Ortíz de Zárate (baptized August 3, 1593 in the Iglesia de San Cosme y San Damián in Burgos, Castilla-León, Spain), the son of Domingo Ortíz de Zárate and María Ortíz de Arriaga, who came to Colombia in 1629 as part of the retinue of the 2nd Marquis of Sofraga, the newly-appointed governor of Nueva Granada. Domingo's family came from small towns in the Cuadrilla de Gorbeialdea in Álava Province (Manurga, Apodaka, Markina). Once in Vélez, Colombia, Domingo married on March 3, 1631 Constanza de Velasco Salazar, a local-born widow whose family came from small towns in the Valle de Mena in Burgos Province (Viérgol, San Pelayo). Flórez de Ocáriz wrote that both Domingo and Constanza had noble ancestry, but it's possible that their families just assumed surnames of high-class families. Habsburg Spain and its colonies were at the grips of an Inquisition, bloodthirsty racism, and pervasive classism that valued limpieza de sangre (purity of blood) and hidalguía (nobility) above all else. The best way to pass as being of pure "Old Christian" blood (and mask historical truths such as Mozarab ancestors embracing Arabic culture, mixed-race Muladí ancestors practicing Islam, or crypto-Jewish ancestors) was to create a genealogy linking yourself back to the royal families of Asturias, Navarra, and other regions of northern Spain that evaded Moorish control. So the following royal genealogy may contain more lore and legends than documented facts and truths, but I include it because it involves many interesting historical characters.
"Hasta su abuelo," Goya's biting satire of Spaniards obsessed with their noble family trees and coats of arms.
1. The Lords of Ayala and the Jiménez dynasty of Iberia
~ According to Flórez de Ocáriz, Domingo's great-great-grandfather, Sancho de Zárate de Apodaca, was a son of the "ancient and noble House of Zárate de Aguirre," located in the village of Vitoriano or Marquina, in the province of Álava, Spain. Both villages are near another village called Zárate. 
~ The Zárate family claims descent from Rodrigo Ortíz de Zárate (fl. 1200), the illegitimate son of the 6th Lord of Ayala. Rodrigo's great-great-grandfather, the 3rd Lord of Ayala, married the daughter of the Lord of Salcedo, who claimed descent from the kings of Asturias, stretching back to Ramiro I (reigned 842-850) who according to legend first saw Santiago Matamoros (St. James the Moor-Killer) in battle, his father Bermudo I (reigned 789-791), and his great-grandfather, Duke Pedro de Cantabria (died 730, Rodrigo's 15th-great-grandfather), who helped his fellow nobleman Don Pelayo keep the Moors from conquering Asturias. The chroniclers claimed that Duke Pedro came from the Visigothic royal line of King Leovigildo (reigned 568-586) and his son King Recaredo I (reigned 586-601). Recaredo I took the major step of converting from Arianism to Roman Catholicism, leading the rest of the Visigoth ruling class to convert and cementing the Catholic Church's hold on Spain for the next 1,400 years. 
~ Rodrigo Ortíz de Zárate's 4th-great-grandfather, Don Vela Sánchez, was the 1st Lord of Ayala and the supposed bastard son or grandson of King Ramiro I (c.1007-1063), the first king of Aragón. Ramiro I in turn was the illegitimate son of King Sancho Garcés III "the Great" of Pamplona (c.990-1035), who conquered and briefly ruled over most of Christian Iberia, from the border of Galicia to Barcelona, before he was assassinated. Sancho III arranged to divide his kingdom among his sons: García Sánchez III got Pamplona, Fernando I got León, and as noted before, Ramiro I got Aragón. These kingdoms were finally reunited in 1469, when a 12th-great-grandson of Ramiro I, King Fernando II of Aragón, married a 17th-great-granddaughter of Fernando I, Queen Isabel I of Castilla y León. Together, King Fernando and Queen Isabel brought about the Spanish Inquisition, Christopher Columbus's voyages, and the modern nation of Spain
~ Sancho III's kingly line stretches back to his 7th-great-grandfather, the first king of Pamplona, Eneko Aritza (Íñigo Arista, c.790-852), who helped free his region from Frankish rule nearly a half-century after the bloody year 778, when Charlemagne burned Pamplona to the ground and the Basques had decisive revenge at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Another interesting ancestor, Sancho III's 4th-great-grandmother Onneca Fortúnez (c.850-after 890), began life as a princess in Pamplona but was obliged to settle in Córdoba after the Moors defeated her father in battle and took him captive. Onneca, now called the Arabic name "Durr" (Pearl), married Abdullah ibn Muhammad, the son of the emir of Córdoba, and may have even converted to Islam. After two decades in Andalucía, Onneca abandoned her Muslim children, returned to Pamplona and resumed her old identity, and married her royal first cousin. A grandson from Onneca's second marriage (the ancestor of Sancho III) became the king of Pamplona, while a grandson from Onneca's first marriage, Abd-ar-Rahman III (889-961), proclaimed himself the Caliph of Córdoba and built the renowned Medina Azahara. Under the rule of Abd-ar-Rahman and his trusted advisor, the Jewish doctor Hasdai ibn Shaprut (c.915-970), Córdoba was Europe's largest, most cosmopolitan, and enlightened city. Its distinguishing character was the convivencia of Muslims, Jews, and Christians, which historian David Levering Lewis defined as "tolerance secured by restrictions" (details here).

Burial stone of King Sancho Garcés III of Pamplona, supposed ancestor of the Ortiz de Zárate family.
2. The House of Ungo de Velasco and King Alfonso VI
~ Flórez de Ocáriz wrote that Constanza de Velasco Salazar claimed descent on her father's side from the House of Ungo de Velascofounded by Diego Sánchez de Velasco in the early 1300s, and the House of San Pelayo, founded by one of the 120 illegitimate children of the feudal lord Lope García de Salazar (c.1264-1344). 
Diego Sánchez de Velasco was the son of two prominent courtiers in Castilla-León, Sancho Sánchez de Velasco (d. 1315) and Sancha García de Carrillo. Sancho served as adelantado mayor under King Fernando IV and Sancha was the aya y camarera mayor (governess and head chambermaid) of King Fernando's daughter Leonor (1307-1359), who became the queen of Aragón. Sancho de Velasco died while fighting the Moors in Gibraltar, following the footsteps of his Velasco forefathers who took part in the Reconquista. His great-grandfather died in the Battle of Alarcos (1195, a major Moorish victory), his grandfather took part in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212, a major Moorish defeat), and his father helped reclaim Sevilla from the Moors (1247-1248). Sancho Sánchez de Velasco was descended on his mother's side from the House of Castro, founded by his 4th-great-grandfather Fernando García de Hita (c.1065-1135), who had married a 6th-great-granddaughter of the Catalan count Guifre the Hairy (d. 898), who founded the House of Barcelona. Sancha de Carrillo was descended from the House of Osorio, founded by her 4th-great-grandfather Osorio Martínez (c.1107-1160), whose ancestors supposedly include an Asturian princess and even a knight who fought in the mythical Battle of Clavijo.
~ Sancho Sánchez de Velasco and Sancha de Carrillo both descended from the previously mentioned King Sancho III of Pamplona and his grandson King Alfonso VI of Castilla y León (c.1040-1109), who is remembered for the reconquest of Muslim-controlled Toledo in 1085. I am amused that one of Alfonso VI's more notable defeats is called the "Treason of Rueda" (1083), referring to when the Moorish governor of Zaragoza promised to surrender to Alfonso VI at the castle at Rueda de Jalón, but instead ambushed the Castilian troops and killed many noblemen. The warrior El Cid then hastened to Rueda de Jalón to broker an end to the fighting. On his mother's side, Alfonso VI was descended from kings of León, and Duke Pedro de Cantabria was his 10th-great-grandfather. Alfonso VI married five times, and his second wife, Constance of Burgundy, had a daughter who became Queen Urraca of Castilla y León (c.1080-1126), the 4th-great-grandmother of Sancho Sánchez de Velasco. Alfonso VI and the noblewoman Jimena Muñoz had an illegitimate daughter, Elvira Alfónsez (c.1079-c.1157), who became the mother-in-law of Osorio Martínez and the 5th-great-grandmother of Sancha de Carillo. 
King Alfonso VI of Castilla y León, supposed ancestor of the House of Ungo de Velasco.
~ Constance of Burgundy, the wife of Alfonso VI and mother of Queen Urraca, descended from the Robertians and the House of Poitiers. Constance's paternal great-grandfather, King Hugh Capet (c.939-996), founded the Capetian dynasty in 987, and his descendants ruled France until the topplings of Hugh's 23rd-great-grandsons, Kings Louis XVI and Louis Philippe I. Spain is still under the rule of Hugh Capet's 29th-great-grandson, King Felipe VI. Hugh Capet was the maternal grandson of Henry the Fowler (c.876-936), the king of East Francia and "first medieval German ruler." Also, Hugh Capet was a paternal 4th-great-grandson of Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (742-814), the famed king of the Franks and oppressor of peoples like the Basques and Saxons. Charlemagne's family tree stretches back to his great-great-grandfather Pepin of Landen (c.580-640), the mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, and some kooks trace Charlemagne's genealogy even further back in antiquity, to the Merovingian dynasty.  
~ Queen Urraca, the daughter and heir of Alfonso VI, first married Count Raymond of Burgundy, a scion of the powerful House of Ivrea and brother of Pope Callixtus II (reigned 1119-1124). While Pope Callixtus II is remembered for the Concordat of Worms, I am more interested in his papal bull "Sicut Judaeis" (1120), which tried to stop the slaughter and forced conversion of Jews. Raymond and his papal brother had a Norman grandmother, making them the first cousins once removed of King William the Conquerer of England and the 4th-great-grandsons of Rollo the Viking (c.846-c.930), first ruler of Normandy. 
~ Queen Urraca had an eventful reign that included a war against her second husband, the king of Aragón, and she secured the throne for her son by her first marriage, King Alfonso VII of Castilla y León (1105-1157). While Alfonso VII called himself "the Emperor of all Spain," in reality he lost control of Portugal to his rebellious cousin, King Afonso I. The House of Ungo de Velasco descends from Estefanía la Desdichada (the Unfortunate), the illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII and Urraca Fernández de Castro, daughter of Fernando García de Hita. Two great-grandsons of Alfonso VII, King Fernando III of Castilla y León and King Jaime I of Aragón, oversaw the Reconquista of most of southern and eastern Spain. Fernando III happened to be the 16th-great-grandfather of Simón Bolívar and Jaime I was a 17th-great-grandfather of Che Guevara. A great-great-grandson of Alfonso VII, King Edward I of England, married a great-granddaughter of Alfonso VII, Eleanor of Castile, and their progeny includes Sir Isaac Newton (their 13th-great-grandson), President Thomas Jefferson (14th-great-grandson), Sir Winston S. Churchill (18th-great-grandson), Queen Elizabeth II of England (19th-great-granddaughter), and President Barack Obama (23rd-great-grandson). 
~ After Alfonso VII's death, his two sons divided the kingdom, and then in 1158 Alfonso's 2-year-old grandson inherited the throne of Castilla. The House of Castro (backed by the king of León) and the House of Lara started a civil war over who would be the young king's regent. At the Battle of Lobregal (1160), Osorio Martínez, fighting for the House of Lara, was killed by his own son-in-law, Fernando Rodríguez de Castro. While the House of Castro did not regain the regency, Fernando Rodríguez de Castro gained enough prestige in the Leonese court to dissolve his first marriage and wed his first cousin Estefanía la Desdichada, who was also the king of León's half-sister. This marriage came to a horrifying end in 1180, when Estefanía was stabbed to death by her jealous husband. Since the king of León left the murder of Estefaníunpunished, some historians have assumed that Estefanía had an affair, but the exact circumstances remain obscure. Estefanía's son, Pedro Rodríguez de Castro, became the mayordomo of the kings of León and the great-grandfather of Sancho Sánchez de Velasco.
~ So Sancho Sánchez de Velasco, forefather of the House of Ungo de Velasco, was the supposed 13th-great-grandson of the genocidal warrior-king Charlemagne. Since the mid-900s, nobles have cobbled together genealogies "proving" their descent from Charlemagne, so his distant imperial image could bolster their own claims to power. It's interesting to note that the Frankish descendants of Charlemagne and the Norman descendants of Rollo the Viking also padded their genealogy by claiming descent from the mythical Trojans of Homeric fame. Charlemagne's Franks claimed descent from Aeneas, hero of Virgil's Aeneid and supposed forefather of the Romans, while Rollo's Normans claimed descent from Antenor, a wise Trojan counselor. For more on these fascinating royal pretensions (and how the English kings claimed descent from the Trojans AND the Norse god Woden!), read this thesis paper by Katherine Clare Cross, "Enemy and Ancestor: Viking Identities and Ethnic Boundaries in England and Normandy, c.950–c.1015."
~ Funny enough, while tracing descent from Charlemagne is still seen as a mark of prestige, contemporary statisticians and geneticists say having Charlemagne as an ancestor is not that unique. They theorize that everyone with European ancestry is probably descended from Charlemagne, as well as from every other European who lived during Charlemagne's time and left descendants. This principle of pedigree collapse shows that any two people on Earth are 50th cousins or closer relations. (Here's more on humanity's common ancestors.)
Reliquary of Charlemagne, supposed ancestor of everyone of European descent.
3. The House of San Pelayo and the Salazar-Velasco blood feud
~ The Salazar family claimed descent from a Visigothic nobleman in Cantabria whose two sons settled in Burgos, one in the town of Salazar and one in the town of Tobar, and whose families adopted the town names as surnames. A mid-13th century descendant, Lope García de Salazar, made a name for himself at the royal court in Toledo when he accepted a one-on-one fight with a Moorish warrior, defeated the Moor, and then took the psychotic step of beheading him. The king, impressed with this brutality, awarded Lope the murdered Moor's red shield adorned with 13 gold stars, and it became the Salazar coat of arms. Lope married Elvira Ortíz Calderón, who happened to be the paternal granddaughter of the 6th Lord of Ayala mentioned above. One of their sons, Lope García de Salazar (c.1264-1344), was a warrior with the nickname "Iron Arms" and a serial rapist who fathered 120 bastard children. His descendants smugly noted that most of his absurdly large brood had mothers of high social standing. One of these illegitimate sons, Juan López de Salazar, built his torre in the small town of San Pelayo de Ayega in Burgos, where an ancient Romanesque church still stands. Juan married Paloma de Largacha and founded the House of San Pelayo, of which Constanza de Velasco Salazar was a supposed descendant. Two other notable descendants of the rapist Lope García de Salazar were refined scholars. A great-great-grandson, also named Lope García de Salazar (1399-1476), ended his lordly life in prison, but during his imprisonment wrote Historia de las bienandanzas e fortunas, which combined history and legends and Spanish genealogies. An 8th-great-grandson, Luis de Salazar y Castro (1658-1734), was known as the "prince of genealogists" for compiling an entire archive on noble Spanish bloodlines. One such royal bloodline sprung from Urraca de Salazar, daughter of the beheader Lope García de Salazar and sister of the serial rapist Lope, whose family made a multi-generational social climb. Urraca's son married an illegitimate daughter of King Edward III of England, Urraca's 3rd-great-granddaughter married the 2nd Duke of Alba, and among Urraca's 5th-great-grandchildren were the famous Grand Duke of Alba and Leonor de Toledo (1522-1562), who married into the Medici family and served as regent of Florence. Urraca's 7th-great-granddaughter, Marie de' Medici (1575-1642), married King Henry IV of France, meaning that King Louis XIV the Sun King of France and King Charles II of England were 9th-great-grandsons of Urraca, and King Felipe VI of Spain and Prince William (the Duke of Cambridge) are 20th-great-grandsons of Urraca. 
Diego Sánchez de Velasco's son, Juan Sánchez de Velasco "the Gallant," built the family castle, the Torre de Ungo, in Valle de Mena, Burgos, Spain. The Velasco and Salazar families then entered a nasty blood feud during the Castilian Civil War (1351-1369), when the Salazar family backed King Pedro I and the Velasco family backed his half-brother, Enrique de Trastámara. After Enrique killed his brother and became king, the Velascos tore down 27 casas fuertes (fortresses) that belonged to the Salazars. In Valle de Mena the Velasco-Salazar blood feud raged on, long past the civil war, until a final truce came in 1433 (details are in Las Merindades de Burgos by María del Carmen Arribas Magro). The House of Ungo de Velasco lasted until 1576, when the 6th-great-granddaughter of Juan Sánchez de Velasco "the Gallant" married into the House of La Revilla. The Torre de Ungo gradually fell into ruin, and according to historian José Bustamante Bricio the remaining walls of the castle were sold in 1887 and broken up to make ballast for the tracks of the La Robla Railroad, which still runs from León to Vizcaya. 
~ On her mother's side, Constanza de Velasco Salazar was a great-great-granddaughter of Juan Martín Hincapié, a conquistador from the expedition of Nikolaus Federmann (1536-1539) and encomendero of Moniquirá, near Vélez. 
The Salazar coat of arms, representing the shield of the Moorish man killed and beheaded by Lope García de Salazar.
~ Domingo de Torres married Casilda de Zárate on June 12, 1678 in Chanchón (now Socorro), Colombia. Casilda may be the woman of the same name who was the daughter of Diego Ortíz de Zárate (baptized 1634 in Vélez) and Agustina de la Peñuela (a great-great-granddaughter of Bartolomé Hernández Herreño). Given their names, María Ortíz de Zárate and her children, including Andrés Cortés de la Peñuela, were possibly descended from Diego Ortíz de Zárate and Agustina de la Peñuela as well. Diego was the son of Domingo Ortíz de Zárate, who came to Colombia in 1629, making Casilda a supposed descendant of the noble Ortíz de Zárate and Salazar families, the Iberian Jiménez dynasty, and the Houses of Ayala, Ungo de Velasco, San Pelayo, Castro, and Osorio. Domingo and Casilda were probably the parents of: 
1. Angela de Torres y Zárate, whose family continues below. 
King Sancho Garcés II of Pamplona (reigned 970-994, center), his wife Urraca (left), and brother Ramiro (right). Sancho II and Urraca were supposed ancestors of the Ortíz de Zárate family. Detail from the Codex Vigilanus (finished 976). 
~ Thanks to the zealous, snobby chronicler Flórez de Ocáriz, my grandfather Rueda's tenuous ancestral ties to the King of Spain have been preserved. For centuries, finding royal blood had been the ultimate goal of "Hispanic" genealogy — I think of Tejano writer John Phillip Santos quoting his uncle Lico: "'I'm gonna find the grandfather that got off the boat — the one related to the king of Spain,' recalling his own genealogies of the Vela family that began with an unnamed Spanish monarch." I have found speculative links from my grandfather Rueda to three sources of "nobility" — 16th-century conquistadors, medieval Iberian nobles, and the Incas  but notice that among all this historical "nobility" there is very little evidence of "noble" behavior.  

Sixth Generation
Zapatoca, Colombia (Source: Google Maps)
~ Alonso de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1678; died January 5, 1721 in San Gil) married Francisca Ortíz Navarro (baptized 1687 in Guane; died 1756 in Zapatoca) and they had 10 children:
1. Alonso de Rueda 
2. Bernardo de Rueda Ortíz (born c.1703; buried March 1, 1771 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
3. Angelito de Rueda Ortíz (died 1708 in Guane)
4. Gabriel de Rueda Ortíz (born c.1708, baptized 1709 in Guane)
5. Francisco Javier de Rueda Ortíz (c.1709)
6. Antonio de Rueda Ortíz (baptized 1711 in Guane; died 1776 in Zapatoca), one of the founders of Zapatoca, who served as the town's alcalde partidario and juez ordinario in 1763.
7. Esteban de Rueda Ortíz (baptized 1713 in Guane)
8. Rosa de Rueda Ortíz (baptized 1717 in Guane), who married Ignacio de Arenas.
9. Mar
ía de Rueda Ortíz
10. Mathea de Rueda Ortíz (baptized 1720 in Guane)

~ Cristóbal de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1686; baptized 1687 in Guane; died 1747 in Guane), who owned the land where Zapatoca was founded, married Micaela Gómez Farelo y Pineda (died 1737 in Guane) on January 8, 1720 in Guane. Their children included:
1. Juan de la Cruz de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (born c.1725; buried October 20, 1800 in Zapatoca), whose family continues immediately below.
2. José Salvador de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (buried January 12, 1796 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
3. Micaela de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (baptized 1728 in San Gil; died 1731 in San Gil)
4. Bernabela de Rueda y Gómez (born 1731; died 1791 in Zapatoca)
5. Joaquina Valeriana de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (born April 13, 1733; baptized April 16, 1733 in Guane; buried April 26, 1819 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
6. Ignacio de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (baptized 1734 in San Gil), who married Anastacia José de Rojas and served as alcalde partidario and juez ordinario of Barichara in 1775.
7. Lucía Ana de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (baptized in 1736 in Guane)
8. Gerardo Rafael de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (born 1737, baptized April 16, 1738 at age 6 months in Guane; died 1804 in Barichara), who lost his mother at birth, whose family continues below.
~ Cristóbal then married his second wife, María de Benavides, in 1739 in Guane.
Signatures of Cristóbal de Rueda Sarmiento (1735) and Juan de la Cruz de Rueda Gómez (1760)

~ Francisco Gómez Farelo y Pineda (died 1732 in Girón) married Salvadora Serrano Solano y González (baptized 1686 in Girón; died 1758 in Zapatoca), and their children were:
1. Juana María Gómez de Nieto
2. Pablo Gómez y Serrano
3. Josefa Gómez y Serrano (born 1715 in Guane), who married Mart
ín Martínez y Zárate (c.1710-1774)
4. Agustín Gómez y Serrano (born 1716; baptized June 30, 1717 at age 10 months in Girón; buried October 14, 1799 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
5. Lorenzo Gómez y Serrano (born August 10, 1719; baptized October 21, 1719 in Girón; buried May 14, 1778 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
6. María Paulina Gómez y Serrano (born March 22, 1722; baptized December 27, 1722 in Girón), whose family continues below.
7. Rosa María Gómez y Serrano

~ Captain Pablo Gómez Romano de la Parra (born and baptized 1687 in Moncora, now Guane; died 1773 in Barichara) was an exploitative slaveowner who served as alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1720. Pablo's first wife was his older second cousin Hipólita Díaz del Castillo (born c.1675; died 1736 in San Gil), the widow of Ignacio Apolinar Hurtado de Mendoza (died 1706 in San Gil), who died childless.
~ Pablo then married in 1737 in San Gil his first cousin once removed, Rafaela Wandurraga y Parra (born c.1710 in San Gil; died 1780 in Barichara), and their children included:
1. Joaquín Antonio Juan Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1738 in Guane)
2. Pablo José Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1743 in San Gil)
3. Francisco Javier Gómez Wandurraga (baptized April 1, 1744 in Guane by the parish priest of San Gil), whose family continues below.
4. Miguel Gerónimo Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1746 in San Gil)
5. Gregorio Angel Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1748 in Guane)
6. Manuel Fermín Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1751 in Barichara; died 1816 in Barichara), the maternal grandfather of Colombian President Aquileo Parra Gómez (1825-1900).
7. Mariana Gómez Wandurraga, whose family continues below.
8. Francisca Rafaela Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1753 in Barichara)
Pedro Ambrocio Gómez Wandurraga 
10. Alejandro Gómez Wandurraga 
11. Gertrudis Gómez Wandurraga 
12. Bárbara Gómez Wandurraga 

~ Andrés Cortés de la Peñuela (died 1775 in Zapatoca) was a public notary whose last names may indicate that he is descended from Diego Ortíz de Zárate (baptized 1634 in Vélez) and Agustina de la Peñuela, who are further mentioned below. Andrés married Gregoria Díaz (buried June 26, 1758 in Zapatoca) and had at least a daughter: 
1. María Teresa Cortés Zárate (born c.1728, baptized May 22, 1729 in San Gil; buried November 2, 1777 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below. 

~ Simón Faustino de la Plata Moreno (baptized 1696 in Socorro; died 1764 in Barichara) and Angela de Torres y Zárate married and their children included:
1. Pedro Mauricio Plata Torres (born c.1716; buried November 10, 1750 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. Juana Bautista Plata Torres, whose family continues below.

~ Francisco Matías de la Plata Moreno (born and baptized 1705 in Socorro) married María Teresa Benítez y Rodríguez Durán, and their children included:
1. Rosa Plata y Benítez (buried June 10, 1804 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. María Plata y Benítez (baptized 1733 in San Gil)

Felipe de Arenas Zabala, who served as the alférez real (royal ensign) of Girón, married María de Vesga Santiago (died c.1691-1695) and their children included: 
1. Andrea de Arenas (born 1687; baptized June 25, 1688 at age 7 months in Girón), whose family continues below. 
2. Isabel de Arenas (baptized 1691 in Socorro)

~ Santiago González y Díaz (born 1669; baptized 1671 in Girón) married María Pascuala Vesga and their children included:
1. Paula González Vesga (baptized 1696 in Girón)
2. Francisca Joaquina González Vesga (baptized 1699 in Girón)
3. Manuela González Vesga (baptized 1702 in Girón)
4. Rosalía González Vesga (buried January 19, 1775 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Pedro de la Prada García (born 1688; baptized 1690 in Girón; died 1768 in Zapatoca) married María de Arenas Mendoza (buried July 10, 1774 in Zapatoca
), and their children included:
1. Melchor de la Prada García y Arenas Mendoza (born c.1711; buried February 7, 1789 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below. 
2. Antonio de la Prada García, whose son,
Pedro Alejandro de la Prada Obregón, was a wealthy cattle farmer in Socorro who helped lead the Comunero rebellion in 1781. 
3. Francisco Javier de la Prada (born 1724, baptized 1725 in San Gil)

~ Salvador de Uribe Salazar (probably born c.1678, baptized 1681 in 
Girón) married Paula de Azuero (buried April 30, 1732 in Girón) and their children likely included:
1. Catarina de Uribe Salazar (buried October 20, 1778 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. Antonia Uribe Salazar (died 1792 in Zapatoca), who married Bernardo Forero (died 1793 in Zapatoca).

~ José Linares married Hipólita Serrano Solano y González (baptized 1683 in Girón; probably died 1754 in Guane) and their children included: 
1. María Sebastiana Linares Serrano (baptized 1702 in Girón)
2. Francisca Rosalía Linares Serrano (born 1710; baptized December 28, 1710 at age 7 months in Girón; buried January 4, 1781 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
3. Ana Catalina Linares Serrano (baptized 1712 in Girón)
4. Ana Petronila Linares Serrano (baptized 1715 in Girón)
5. Diego Linares Serrano (baptized 1716 in Girón)
6. Bárbara Linares Serrano (baptized 1721 in Girón)

~ Pascuala de Ardila y Ribera first married Alonso Gómez Currea, the son of Ignacio Currea Betancur and Francisca Sarmiento de Olvera. 
~ The widow Pascuala de Ardila y Ribera then married Francisco Díaz Sarmiento, a probable grandson of Juan Díaz Bermúdez and Antonia Sarmiento de Olvera, and their children included:
1. Pedro José Díaz Ardila (born and baptized 1719 in San Gil)
2. Josefa 
Díaz Ardila (born 1721, baptized 1722 in San Gil)
3. Juana 
María Díaz Ardila (born and baptized 1723 in San Gil)
Simón Díaz Ardila (born 1725; baptized June 15, 1727 at age 1 year and 8 months in San Gil; died 1803 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

Cristóbal de Ardila y Ribera (born c.1678 in Chanchón, now Socorro) became an alférez (army ensign) and married Feliciana de Archila. Their children included: 
1. Antonio de Ardila y Archila (born 1702 in Socorro; died 1763 in Socorro) married Francisca Javiera de Oviedo in 1734, and his children became very influential in Socorro. One son, Mateo de Ardila y Oviedo, served as the town clerk. Another son, José Ignacio Ardila y Oviedo, nicknamed El Zarco (Blue Eyes), led a group of butchers that controlled the town's meat trade and became known as Los magnates de la plazuela (Magnates of the little plaza). When Juan Francisco Berbeo led Socorro in the 1781 Comuneros rebellion, Ignacio Ardila became an important leader in the movement, his son Ignacio Ardila y Olarte served as Berbeo's private secretary, and Ignacio's brother, Diego Ardila y Oviedo, was appointed a captain-general of the Comuneros. (For more on the Comunero Ardilas and their circle, read The People and the King by John Leddy Phelan.)
2. Margarita de Ardila y Archila, whose son Antonio José Monsalve (born 1745 in Socorro) also became a captain-general in the 1781 Comunero rebellion. He in turn had two sons, Juan José Monsalve Fernández and José Antonio Monsalve Fernández, who were independistas executed by Spanish forces in 1816. 

~ José Serrano Solano y González (born c.1681; died 1755 in Zapatoca) was a wealthy landowner and exploitative slaveowner who organized the first Mass celebrated in Zapatoca on August 30, 1739, in the "Llano de los gallos," and died following an accident on the grounds of his estate, "Santa Rosa." José married Lucía Gómez Farelo y Pineda (born 1699; baptized 1700 in Guane; died 1795 in Zapatoca), who in 1760 helped petition for Zapatoca to have its own priest and parish, and she mortgaged 7 of her slaves to aid the process (as noted in Isaías Ardila's "El pueblo de los Guanes"). The children of José and Lucía included:
1. Ana María 
Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1715 in Guane)
2. Juan Ignacio Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1717 in Guane)
3. Bernabé Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1718 in Guane)
4. Francisco Javier Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1727 in Guane)
María Leonarda Serrano Solano y Gómez (born 1730, baptized 1731 in Guane)
6. María Isidora Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1732 in Guane)
7. Simón Tadeo Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized April 25, 1734 in Guane; buried August 10, 1804 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
8. Francisco Javier Joaquín Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1738 in Guane)
9. Ana Joaquina Serrano Solano y Gómez (born March 10, 1740; baptized June 18, 1740 in Guane; buried November 16, 1799 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Jacinto Gómez Farelo y Pineda (baptized 1697 in Girón) married Úrsula Serrano Solano y González (baptized 1696 in Girón; died 1768 in Zapatoca), and they were exploitative slaveowners. In 1733, they mortgaged one of their slaves for 300 patacones (gold coins), according to 
Castaño Pareja. Their children included:
1. Bárbara Gómez Serrano (baptized Feburary 7, 1726 in Guane; died July 26, 1783 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. María Dorotea Gómez Serrano (baptized 1734 in Girón)

~ Miguel de Orejarena (born in Spain; buried December 27, 1766 in Zapatocahad a Basque last name meaning "the property/estate of Oreja," and Oreja in turn is Spanish for "ear." Miguel migrated to Colombia and married Lucía de Rueda Sarmiento (born 1691) on May 9, 1717 in Guane. Miguel then served as alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1738. Miguel and Lucía had at least a son:  
1. Miguel de Orejarena y Rueda (born c.1718), whose family continues below.  

~ Domingo Pérez married Andrea de Arenas (baptized 1688 in Girón), and their children included: 
1. (probably) Romualdo Pérez (buried June 26, 1773 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below. 
2. José Pérez (baptized 1706 in Girón)
3. Pedro Pérez (baptized 1711 in Girón)
4. Juan Ignacio Pérez (born c.1717; baptized 1718 in Girón)

~ María Ferreira (died 1783 in Barichara) was first married to Diego Martínez de Aponte, likely the son of Diego Martínez and María Ortíz de Zárate, and their children included:
1. María Josefa Martínez y Ferreira (born 1719; baptized 1720 in San Gil)
2. Francisca Martínez y Ferreira
María Ferreira then married Juan Francisco Díaz del Castillo and their children included:
1. Isabel Margarita Díaz Ferreira (born 1730; baptized 1731 in San Gil)
2. María Tomasa Díaz Ferreira (born 1733; baptized 1734 in San Gil) 
3. Francisca Javiera Díaz Ferreira (born 1736; baptized 1737 in San Gil) 
4. María Gregoria Joaquina Díaz Ferreira (born 1741; baptized 1742 in San Gil) 
5. Pedro Díaz Ferreira, whose family continues below.
6. Ana Josefa Díaz Ferreira, whose family continues below.

~ Pedro de Acevedo Peñalosa y Sotomayor married María Durán y Díaz (baptized 1680 in Guane), and their children included:
1. Rosa 
de Acevedo Peñalosa y Acevedo y Durán, whose son, José Vicente Plata Acevedo, was a Comunero leader.
2. Antonio de Acevedo Peñalosa y Durán (born c.1702; probably died 1790 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
3. Juan de Acevedo Peñalosa y Durán, whose family continues below.
~ In 1719, Pedro married a second time, to Lucía de Amaya de la Parra, and among their children was:
3. Pedro de Acevedo Peñalosa y Amaya (c.1724-c.1788), the paternal grandfather of 
José Acevedo y Gómez, the "Tribune of the People" (1772-1817).

Seventh Generation
Barichara, Colombia
~ Bernardo de Rueda Ortíz (born c.1703; died 1771 in Zapatoca) married Petronila García (buried April 2, 1758 in Zapatoca) and their children included:
1. Pablo de Rueda García, whose family continues below.
2. Paula 
de Rueda García (baptized 1731 in Guane)
3. Pedro Justo de Rueda García (born c.1731; baptized February 4, 1733 at age 1 year and 6 months in Guane), whose family continues below.
4. Joaquín de Rueda García (baptized 1735 in Guane)
5.  Marcos 
Joaquín de Rueda García (baptized 1736 in Guane)
6. Ignacio Joaquín de Rueda García (baptized 1737 in Guane)
7. Manuel José de Rueda García (baptized 1740 in Guane)
~ Bernardo remarried in 1759 in Zapatoca, to Rosa Mar
ía Masías. 

~ Ignacio de Rueda and Francisca Linares Serrano (baptized 1710 in Girón; died 1781 in Zapatoca) married on August 6, 1743 in Girón. Descendants claimed that Ignacio was the son of Alonso de Rueda Sarmiento (1678-1721), but Ignacio does not appear in Alonso's will. The children of Ignacio and Francisca included:
1. Joaquín Rueda Linares (baptized 1745 in Guane)
2. Bárbara Sebastiana Rueda Linares (born 1745, baptized November 22, 1746 at age 1 year in Zapatoca; buried July 12, 1830 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below. 

~ Juan de la Cruz de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (born c.1725; died 1800 in Zapatoca) was one of the region's richest businessmen, who made a fortune selling tobacco. Juan de la Cruz served as the alcalde partidario and juez ordinario of Zapatoca in 1762 and organized the construction of a road from Socorro to the Magdalena River. He then served as the alcalde ordinario of San Gil in 1773. During the Comuneros' revolt of 1781, Juan de la Cruz Rueda was named the Comunero captain of Zapatoca, probably due to his wealth and prestige. He was also probably involved in convincing the viceroy to allow the towns of Zapatoca and Girón to continue producing tobacco for the surrounding region, while tobacco monopoly officials forbade growing tobacco in the rest of Socorro province. Some say the restrictions were meant to punish the Comuneros, but the historian John Leddy Phelan shows they predated the revolt by a few years. In any case, Juan de la Cruz was accused of corruption and forced to leave his lands for a while, but his reputation was restored and he served again as the alcade of San Gil in 1786. Juan de la Cruz married Teresa Cortés Zárate (born 1728, baptized 1729 in San Gil; died 1777 in Zapatoca) on May 12, 1746 in San Gil, and their children included:
1. Gregoria Josefa 
Rueda Cortés
2. Joaquín Agustín Rueda Cortés (born August 28, 1748 in Guane; baptized September 8, 1748 in Guane; buried July 28, 1777 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
3. Santiago José Rueda Cortés (baptized 1750 in Guane) 
4. María Josefa Rueda Cortés
5. Ana Juliana Rueda Cortés (baptized 1757 in Zapatoca)
6. Manuel Joaquín Rueda Cortés (baptized 1759 in Zapatoca)
7. Juan José Rueda Cortés (baptized 1761 in Zapatoca)
8. Miguel María Rueda Cortés (baptized 1763 in Zapatoca)
9. Agueda Micaela Rueda Cortés (baptized 1765 in Zapatoca)
10. Eugenio 
José Rueda Cortés (baptized 1768 in Zapatoca), a factory owner in Zapatoca, who was the grandfather of Bishop Juan Nepomuceno Rueda Rueda of Antioquia (1823-1903) and the great-grandfather of the writer Tomás Rueda Vargas (1879-1943).
~ After Teresa's death, Juan de la Cruz Rueda then married Lorenza Ferreira, and they had a daughter: 
11. Ana Joaquina de Rueda y Ferreira

~ Pedro Mauricio Plata Torres (born c.1716; died 1750 in Zapatoca) and María Paulina Gómez y Serrano (baptized 1722 in Girón) were third cousins who married on September 21, 1739 in Guane. Their children included:
1. María Margarita Plata Gómez (born 1740; baptized November 29, 1740 at 4 months in Guane), whose family continues below.
2. María Luisa Plata Gómez (born 1749; baptized November 1, 1749 at age 2 months in Zapatoca; buried September 30, 1794 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Agustín Gómez y Serrano (born 1716 in Girón; died 1799 in Zapatoca) married Juana Bautista Plata Torres and their 11 children included:
1. Joaquín Gómez Plata, whose family continues below.
2. Juana María Gómez Plata (baptized 1748 in Zapatoca)
3. Juan Antonio Gómez Plata (baptized 1750 in Zapatoca)
4. Bárbara Gómez Plata (baptized 1753 in Zapatoca)
5. Mateo Gómez Plata (baptized 1755 in Zapatoca)
6. María de los Reyes 
Gómez Plata (baptized 1758 in Zapatoca)
7. Mariano Joaquín Gómez Plata (baptized 1760 in Zapatoca), the father of Bishop Juan de la Cruz Gómez Plata of Antioquia (1793-1850), the grandfather of judge Rito Antonio Martínez (1823-1889), the great-grandfather of politician and journalist Carlos Martínez Silva (1847-1903), and the great-great-grandfather of psychiatrist Maximiliano Rueda Galvis (1886-1944).
8. José Joaquín Gómez Plata (baptized 1762 in Zapatoca)

9. Ana Francisca Gómez Plata

~ Lorenzo Gómez y Serrano (baptized 1719 in Girón; died 1778 in Zapatoca) married Rosa María Plata y Benítez (died 1804 in Zapatoca) and their children included:
1. Fernando José Gómez y Plata (born 1744, baptized 1745 in San Gil)
2. Andrés Gómez y Plata (baptized 1746 in Zapatoca)
3. Lorenzo Gómez y Plata (baptized 1749 in Zapatoca)
4. María Manuela Gómez y Plata (born 1751; baptized September 5, 1751 at 3 months in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
5. Alejandro Joaquín Gómez y Plata (baptized 1754 in Zapatoca)
6. Tomás José Gómez y Plata (baptized 1757 in Zapatoca)
7. María Isabel Gómez y Plata (baptized 1758 in Zapatoca)
8. Juan Antonio Gómez y Plata (baptized 1760 in Zapatoca)
9. Rosa Bautista Gómez y Plata (born 1762; baptized November 29, 1762 at 3 months in Zapatoca), who may be the Rosa Bautista Gómez Plata listed immediately below. 
10. Vicente Apolinar Gómez y Plata (baptized 1765 in Zapatoca)
11. María Teresa Gómez y Plata (baptized 1768 in Zapatoca)

~ Lorenzo Gómez Plata married Rosa Gómez Benítez (who may be Lorenzo Gómez and Rosa Plata listed immediately above) and their children included:
1. Rosa Bautista Gómez Plata y Gómez (possibly born in 1762 in Zapatoca; buried April 9, 1839 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Romualdo Pérez (died 1773 in Zapatoca) and Bárbara Gómez Serrano (baptized 1726 in Guane; died 1783 in Zapatoca) married on January 12, 1745 in Girón and their children included:
1. Juan Antonio Pérez Gómez 
2. Gregorio José Pérez Gómez (buried November 12, 1820 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Simón Díaz Ardila (born 1725 in Guane; died 1803 in Zapatoca) and Joaquina Valeriana de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (born 1733 in Guane; died 1819 in Zapatoca) married on September 9, 1751 in Guane. A 1788 document shows that Simón and Joaquina did not know how to write. They had 10 children:
1. Juana 
Díaz de Moros
2. María de las Nieves Díaz Rueda (buried August 22, 1824 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below. 
3. María Josefa Díaz de Acevedo
4. Mariana Díaz de Sanmiguel
5. Josefa Díaz de Mejía
6. Ignacio Díaz Rueda
7. Javier Díaz Rueda
8. Felipe Díaz Rueda (born May 30, 1774; baptized June 13, 1774 in Zapatoca; buried June 20, 1855 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
9. Bárbara Díaz Rueda 
10. Tomás Díaz Rueda
~ Simón Díaz also had two illegitimate sons: José Díaz and Gil Díaz. 

~ Simón Serrano Solano y Gómez (baptized 1733 in Guane; died 1804 in Zapatoca), who served as the alcalde foraneo of Zapatoca in 1777, married Bárbara Cortés (died 1797 in Zapatoca) and their children included:
1. María Gertrudis Serrano Cortés (baptized 1757 in Zapatoca)
2. Manuel José Serrano Cortés (baptized 1758 in Zapatoca)
3. Bárbara Javiera Serrano Cortés (baptized 1761 in Zapatoca)
4. María Constanza Serrano Cortés (baptized 1767 in Zapatoca)
5. Ana Francisca Serrano Cortés (born 1775; baptized August 20, 1775 at age 6 months in Zapatoca; buried January 5, 1845 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Miguel de Orejarena y Rueda (born c.1718 in Colombia) was born to a Spanish father and a Colombian mother. He married Rosalía González Vesga (died 1775 in Zapatoca) and their children included:
1. Ana Lucía Orejarena González (born 1748; baptized September 8, 1748 at around age 4 months 
in Guane; buried April 1808 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. María Petronila Orejarena González (baptized 1751 in Guane)
3. Domingo Joaquín Orejarena González (baptized 1754 in Guane)
4. Juan Manuel Orejarena González (baptized 1756 in Guane)
5. Antonio Orejarena González (baptized 1759 in Guane)

~ Tomás Berbeo was possibly a grandson of Domingo Antonio Berbeo (born in Oviedo, Asturias, Spain; died 1714 in Socorro), Socorro's alguacil mayor del Santo Oficio (chief justice of the Inquisition). In his will, Domingo said he had four illegitimate children with
María García de Cabrera Sandines: Andrés Justino, María Josefa, Angela Custodia, and Ignacio José Berbeo. Andrés Justino Berbeo was in turn the father of Juan Francisco Berbeo (baptized 1729 in Socorro; died 1795 in Socorro), the leader of the Comuneros' revolt in 1781 and the main author of the Capitulations of Zipaquirá, the document that listed the Comuneros' demands to the Bogotá authorities. Historian John Leddy Phelan calls this document "the first written constitution of New Granada" and "a remarkable achievement worthy of comparison with any political document formulated in the eighteenth century in either the New or the Old World."
Tomás Berbeo had at least two daughters:
1. Francisca Berbeo, whose family continues below.
2. María Cipriana Berbeo (died 1809 in Zapatoca), who married José Antonio Rueda Gómez in 1774 in Zapatoca.

~ Melchor de la Prada y Arenas Mendoza (born c.1711; buried February 7, 1789 in Zapatoca) was a landowner and exploitative slaveowner who helped found the town of Zapatoca in 1743. Melchor married Catarina de Uribe (buried October 20, 1778 in Zapatoca) and their children included:
1. Diego Antonio de la Prada Uribe (born 1739; baptized December 25, 1740 at age 13 months in Guane; buried June 22, 1797 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

2. Agustín de la Prada Uribe (baptized 1743 in Guane)
3. María Josefa de la Prada Uribe (baptized 1744 in Guane) 
4. María de la Concepción de la Prada Uribe (baptized 1750 in Zapatoca), the grandmother of the patriot Marcelino Gómez Rueda (1801-1822). Marcelino, a Zapatoca native, was one of the 153 horsemen led by José Antonio Páez who defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Las Queseras del Medio (1819) in Venezuela. He was later killed in the Battle of Bomboná (1822) in Ecuador.
5. María Teresa de la Prada Uribe (baptized 1753 in Zapatoca)
~ Only 22 days after burying Catarina, on Melchor de la Prada married his goddaughter, Josefa Márquez Wandurraga (baptized 1746 in Zapatoca; died 1813 in Zapatoca) on November 11, 1778 in Zapatoca. Their marriage was annulled four months later, but they had one daughter: 

6. María Teresa de la Prada Márquez (born October 23, 1779; baptized October 31, 1779 in Zapatoca)
Melchor de la Prada's signature (1753)

~ Antonio de Acevedo y Durán (born c.1702; probably buried February 19, 1790 in Zapatoca), an exploitative slaveowner, and María Rosa de la Parra Amaya (probably died 1775 in Zapatoca) married in 1728 in San Gil and their children included:
1. Francisco José Acevedo y Parra (born 1729 in San Gil)
2. Pbro. José Julián Acevedo de la Parra (born 1732 in San Gil; died 1788 in Zapatoca), who served as the parish priest of Zapatoca. 
3. Antonio José Acevedo y Parra (born 1737, baptized 1738 in San Gil)
4. Margarita María Acevedo y Parra (born 1738 in San Gil)
5. Manuel Joaquín Acevedo y Parra (born 1742, baptized in May and August 1743 in Barichara by priests from San Gil), whose family continues below.
6. Juan Ignacio Acevedo y Parra (born 1742 in San Gil)
7. María Gertrudis Acevedo y Parra (baptized 1746 in San Gil; died 1783 in Zapatoca), who married Miguel de Aranda and had a family.
8. Francisco Basilio de Acevedo, who married Ana Francisca Gómez Plata. He also had three sons with María Antonia Mejía who were slaves and were emancipated in 1789: Casimiro, Félix Fernando, and Gonzalo Acevedo y Mejía.

~ Antonio de Acevedo married a second time, to Mariana Serrano in 1777 in Zapatoca.

~ Juan de Acevedo Peñalosa y Durán, whose name appears interchangeably as "Juan de Acevedo" and "Juan de Peñalosa" in records, married María Martínez y Zárate (died c.1772-1777) and their children included: 
1. Josefa María de Acevedo Peñalosa y Martínez (born 1725; baptized 1726 in San Gil)
2. Diego de Acevedo Peñalosa y Martínez (born and baptized 1728 in San Gil)
3. Juan Antonio Joaquín de Acevedo Peñalosa y Martínez  (baptized April 1, 1736 at age 3 months in San Gil; died before 1772), whose family continues below.
4. José Joaquín de Acevedo Peñalosa y Martínez (baptized 1739 in Guane)

~ Nicolás de la Parra first married Catarina Ort
íz (died 1766 in Barichara) in 1747 in San Gil. Then, Nicolás married María Graciela de Rueda and had at least two children:
1. Catarina Parra (born 1768; baptized August 5, 1768 at age 6.5 months in Barichara), whose family continues below.
2. Josefa Parra, whose daughter was Bárbara de Macías

Eighth Generation
~ Pablo de Rueda García and Joaquina Serrano y Gómez (baptized 1740 in Guane; died 1799 in Zapatoca) married on September 18, 1755 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Francisco Javier Rueda Serrano (baptized 1757 in Zapatoca)
2. Diego Rueda Serrano (baptized 1760 in Zapatoca)
3. José Joaquín Rueda Serrano (baptized 1763 in Zapatoca)
4. Martiniano Rueda Serrano (born c.1765; buried January 5, 1848 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
5. Bárbara Josefa Rueda Serrano (baptized 1774 in Zapatoca)
6. Vicente José Rueda Serrano (baptized 1777 in Zapatoca)

~ Pedro Justo de Rueda García (baptized 1733 in Guane) may be the captain with the same name who commanded 20 men in the Comuneros' army. He married María Margarita Plata Gómez (baptized 1740 in Guane) on November 23, 1754 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. María Manuela Rueda Plata (born c.1759; baptized April 6, 1760 at age 1 year in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. Juan Francisco Rueda Plata (baptized 1764 in Zapatoca)
3. Manuel Salvador Rueda Plata (baptized 1770 in Zapatoca)
4. Lino José Rueda Plata (baptized 1772 in Zapatoca)
5. Norberto José Rueda Plata (baptized 1780 in Zapatoca)

~ Casimiro Quijano (died 1802 in Zapatoca) and María Luisa Plata Gómez (baptized 1749 in Zapatoca; died 1794 in Zapatoca) married in 1764 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Juana María Quijano Plata, who may be one of the Juanas listed below. Her family continues below.
2. Felipe Benicio Quijano Plata (baptized 1769 in Zapatoca)
3. Juana Fulgencia Quijano Plata (born and baptized on January 16, 1772 in Zapatoca)
4. Juana Josefa Quijano Plata (born January 30, 1774; baptized January 31, 1774 in Zapatoca)

5. María de los Reyes Quijano Plata (baptized 1782 in Zapatoca) 
6. Juan Vicente Quijano Plata (baptized 1784 in Zapatoca)
7. María Lorenza Quijano Plata (baptized 1786 in Zapatoca)
8. José Hipólito Quijano Plata (baptized 1788 in Zapatoca)
9. Ramón Gil Quijano Plata (baptized 1791 in Zapatoca)

~ Pedro de León Carreño (buried November 23, 1771 in Zapatoca) 
married María Páez (buried November 18, 1779 in Zapatoca). Pedro may be related to the family in Ocaña, Norte de Santander, Colombia with the same last name and María may be a relative of Andrés Páez de Sotomayor, who founded the city of Bucaramanga in 1622. The children of Pedro and María included:
1. Pablo de León (baptized March 27, 1728 at age 3 months in Guane; buried September 1802 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. Ana Josefa de León Páez (baptized 1732 in Guane)

3. Laura María de León Páez (baptized 1734 in Guane)
4. Juan Crist
ósomo de León Páez (baptized 1736 in Guane)
5. María de los Angeles de León Páez (baptized 1739 in Guane; died 1798 in Zapatoca), who married Francisco Cirilo de Santamaría in 1757 in Zapatoca.

6. María León Páez (died 1759 in Zapatoca), who was listed on her death record as an "incapaz hija," probably meaning she was an invalid.

7. Juan José León Páez (died 1778 in Zapatoca), who married María Manuela Páez.

~ Joaquín Agustín Rueda Cortés (born 1748 in Guane; died 1777 in Zapatoca) married María Manuela Gómez Farelo y Plata (baptized 1751 in Zapatoca) on January 16, 1768 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Gregorio José 
Rueda Gómez (baptized 1768 in Zapatoca)
2. Luis Francisco Rueda Gómez (baptized 1770 in Zapatoca)
3. Juan Agustín Rueda Gómez (born August 29, 1772; baptized September 2, 1772 in Zapatoca; buried September 23, 1813 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Joaquín Gómez Plata and Ana Lucía Orejarena González (baptized 1748 in Guane; died 1808 in Zapatoca) married in 1766 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Juana Bautista Gómez Orejarena (baptized August 11, 1772 at age 1 month in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

2. Hipólito José Gómez Orejarena (baptized 1778 in Zapatoca)
3. Ana Inés Gómez Orejarena (baptized 1780 in Zapatoca)
4. Antonio José Gómez Orejarena (baptized 1781 in Zapatoca)
5. Gregorio Gómez Orejarena (baptized 1783 in Zapatoca)
6. Pablo Gómez Orejarena (baptized 1789 in Zapatoca)
7. Ana Petronila Gómez Orejarena (baptized 1793 in Zapatoca)

~ Salvador de Rueda y Gómez Farelo (born c.1729; died 1796 in Zapatoca) married Francisca Berbeo (probably a close relative of Juan Francisco Berbeo, the leader of the Comuneros' revolt in 1781) and their children included:
1. María Josefa de Rueda Berbeo, whose family continues below.
2. Antonio Julián de Rueda Berbeo (baptized 1764 in Zapatoca)
3. Bartolomé Joaquín de Rueda Berbeo (baptized 1765 in Zapatoca)
4. María Gertrudis de Rueda Berbeo (baptized 1771 in Zapatoca)
5. Andrés José de Rueda Berbeo (born 1773; baptized June 13, 1773 at age 2 months in Zapatoca), a twin brother, whose family continues below.
6. Vicente Javier de Rueda Berbeo (born 1773
; baptized June 13, 1773 at age 2 months in Zapatoca), a twin brother, whose family continues below.
7. Juan Javier de Rueda Berbeo (baptized 1775 in Zapatoca)

~ Diego Antonio de la Prada Uribe (born 1739 in Guane; died 1797 in Zapatoca) and Bárbara Rueda Linares (born 1745, baptized 1746 in Zapatoca; died 1830 in Zapatoca) married on November 27, 1761 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Felipe Santiago 
de la Prada Rueda (baptized 1766 in Zapatoca) 
2. Juana María Salomé de la Prada Rueda (baptized 1768 in Zapatoca)
3. Carlos José de la Prada Rueda (died 1818 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
4. María Ignacia Reyes de la Prada Rueda (born January 5, 1780; baptized January 7, 1780 in Zapatoca; buried January 9, 1848 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
5. Juan Vicente de la Prada Rueda (baptized 1784 in Zapatoca) 
6. José María de la Prada Rueda (baptized 1786 in Zapatoca; died 1862 in Betulia), who co-founded the town of Betulia, Santander, Colombia in 1844. 
7. Bárbara Vicenta de la Prada Rueda (baptized 1788 in Zapatoca)

~ Gerardo Rafael de Rueda Gómez (born 1737 in Guane; died 1804 in Barichara) signed a petition in 1800 to make Barichara a separate town from San Gil. He married Ana Josefa Díaz Ferreira and their children included:
1. Gil José de Rueda Díaz (baptized 1758 in Barichara)
2. Francisco Javier de Rueda Díaz (born 1759; baptized November 6, 1759 at age 10 months in Barichara), whose probable family continues below.
3. Juan de la Cruz de Rueda Díaz (baptized 1767 in Barichara), whose probable family continues immediately below.

4. Ignacia Rueda, who married Manuel Fermín Gómez Wandurraga (c.1751-1816) in 1780 in Barichara and became the maternal grandmother of President Aquileo Parra (1825-1900). In his memoir, Aquileo Parra remembers his mother saying that her great-grandfather Rueda married the daughter of a Guane cacique, but that seems to be a falsehood since her great-grandfather Rueda was Cristóbal de Rueda Sarmiento (1686-1747),  who married Micaela Gómez Farelo. Crisóbal de Rueda Sarmiento did have a mestiza great-great-grandmother, Beatriz de Torres, so perhaps the family memory became murky over time. This story recalls white families with roots in the colonial United States who invent or exaggerate Native American ancestry. 
5. Francisco Javier de Rueda Díaz (born circa January 1770; baptized April 3, 1771 at age 1 year and 4 months in Barichara) [Note: second son with same name. My ancestor Francisco Javier married in 1783, and was probably not 13 years old.]
6. José Cristóbal de Rueda Díaz (baptized 1772 in Barichara; died 1846 in La Robada, now Gal
án), whose family continues below.
7. Gabriel Angel de Rueda Díaz (baptized 1774 in Barichara)
8. Mariana Rueda Díaz, who married Francisco Pradilla Silva (1785-1859). 
9. Ignacio Rueda, who married Encarnación Parra, was described in the memoir of his great-nephew Aquileo Parra as a royalist and a haugthy and cruel man. Around 1808 Ignacio Rueda developed such a bitter rivalry with fellow landowner Gonzalo Carrizosa that he threatened Gonzalo's tenants with the garrote and caused Gonzalo to flee to Bogotá. Through the efforts of close relatives, Ignacio Rueda received a pardon from Francisco Paula de Santander, which saved him from major legal repercussions. 

~ Juan de la Cruz Rueda, who is probably the son of Gerardo de Rueda and Josefa Díaz seen above, married Catarina Parra and his children included: 
1. Francisco Rueda Parra, whose family continues below.
2. Eugenio Rueda Parra 
3. Juliana Rueda de Gómez
4. Joaquina Rueda de Otero
5. Casimira Rueda de Gómez

~ Manuel Acevedo married Josefa de los Reyes on January 7, 1769 in Barichara and and their children included:
1. Juana María Josefa Acevedo de los Reyes (baptized 1770 in Zapatoca)
2. Elvira Acevedo de los Reyes (born 1772; baptized February 24, 1773 at age 6 months in Zapatoca; buried December 2, 1803 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
3. Gregorio Joaquín Acevedo de los Reyes (baptized 1774 in Barichara)
4. José Miguel Acevedo de los Reyes (baptized 1780 in Barichara)

~ Joaquín Rueda married Teresa Galvis (or Galvez) and their children included:
1. Dolores Rueda Galvis, whose family continues below.
2. José Raimundo Rueda Galvis (baptized 1793 in Barichara)
3. José Joaquín Rueda Galvis (baptized 1794 in Barichara; died 1803 in Barichara)

~ Juan Antonio Acevedo y Mart
ínez (born 1736 in San Gil; died by 1772) married Mariana Gómez Wandurraga and they had at least a daughter:
1. María Manuela Acevedo Gómez (baptized May 12, 1767 in Barichara), whose family continues below.

~ Pedro Alcántara Díaz 
Ferreira (died 1778 in Barichara) married María Teresa Martínez de Aponte y Parra in 1767 in San Gil, and their children included (order unknown): 
1. Pedro José Díaz Martínez (born October 12, 1768; baptized October 2o, 1768 in San Gil; buried July 10, 1841 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
2. Juan 
José Díaz Martínez (baptized 1771 in Barichara)
3. María Díaz Martínez de Rueda
4. Ignacio Díaz Martínez
5. Santos Díaz Martínez

~ Francisco Javier Gómez Wandurraga (baptized 1744 in San Gil), an exploitative slave owner, had a farm in "Agua-Blanca," near Barichara. In 1772, Francisco Javier bought from Francisco Basilio de Acevedo two slaves who had originally belonged to his father, Pablo Gómez Romano. The slaves were Bárbara (born c.1738) and her daughter Candelaria. Francisco Javier only paid half of the price of 300 pesos for the slaves, and after Acevedo's death he was sued by Mariano Joaquín Gómez Plata, Acevedo's brother-in-law. The lawsuit dragged on for 12 years, until Francisco Javier's farm and belongings were confiscated by authorities in 1799. Francisco Javier spent at least another decade in court trying to reclaim his property. Gómez Plata said in a 1798 court document that Francisco Javier was "a brooding, litigious, and chimeric man towards everyone."
Francisco Javier married María Antonia de Rueda and their children included: 
1. Teresa Gómez Rueda (buried July 9, 1838 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
2. María Ignacia Gómez Rueda (baptized 1770 in Barichara)
3. José Manuel Gómez Rueda (baptized 1772 in Barichara)
4. Ignacio Javier Gómez Rueda (baptized 1774 in Barichara)
5. José Joaquín Gómez Rueda (baptized 1778 in Barichara)
6. María Luisa Gómez Rueda (baptized 1780 in Barichara)

~ Martín Gómez Romano, possibly the son of Manuel Gómez Romano and Catarina de la Parra Benítez, married in the 1720s Manuela Tello de Mayorga, the probable descendant of father-and-son conquistadors Francisco de Mayorga and Juan de Mayorga.

~ Pedro de Mayorga and Inés Pérez (fl. late 1400s) had a son, Francisco de Mayorga, who was born in León, Spain and then moved south to Andalucía, living first in Granada and then El Puerto de Santa María, Cádiz. He married Isabel de Salazar and had at least two children, Juan de Mayorga and Juana Miguel de Mayorga.  
Flórez de Ocáriz says that Juan de Mayorga joined the army of Emperor Carlos V and fought in Italy under the command of Duke Carlos de Borbón. This imperial army of 34,000 men defeated the French forces but rebelled when they received no pay. On May 6, 1527 the mutinous soldiers began the infamous Sack of Rome, looting churches and monasteries and killing, raping, and wounding thousands of Romans. Juan de Mayorga stole a painting depicting Ecce Homo (the scourged Jesus Christ) that Flórez de Ocáriz claims was "milagrosísimo" (most miraculous) and made its viewers feel "compunction and fear." When Francisco de Mayorga and Juan de Mayorga left El Puerto de Santa María to sail for Puerto Rico, registering as passengers on November 16, 1534, Juan brought the awe-inspiring painting to the Caribbean. 
Passenger record for Francisco de Mayorga and his son Juan de Mayorga, bound for Puerto Rico in 1534.
Once in Puerto Rico, Francisco and Juan had separate military careers. Francisco aided the conquest of the Taínos and the island of Borinquen, then went to Colombia, where he fought the Laches in El Cocuy, before he died in Chita, Boyacá. Juan fought in Hispaniola, Cubagua, and Cabo de la Vela and was married in Santo Domingo to María de Cazalla y Tello, the daughter of Gonzalo de Cazalla Tello, a local court clerk who came from Cazalla de la Sierra, near Sevilla, and his wife Leonor Núñez
Juan de Mayorga finally came to Colombia in 1543 as part of the expedition of the adelantado Alonso de Lugo, settled in Vélez, became an encomendero, and served as a scribe for the cabildos (town councils) of Tunja and Santa Fé de Bogotá. In 1554, Juan acquired the encomienda of Moncora, which he passed on to his only son, and which in the 1600s became the settlement of Guane. 
Juan de Mayorga's miraculous "Ecce Homo," taken from Rome and now enshrined near Villa de Leyva.
The "most miraculous" Ecce Homo painting continued to inspire one of Juan de Mayorga's seven daughters, Catalina de Jesús Nazareno (died 1640 in Tunja), who as a widow became a Dominican nun so devout that she even wore a crown of thorns. The apostle St. Bartholomew appeared to Catalina in a vision and asked her to turn the site of her father's hacienda in what is now Sutamarchán, Boyacá into a Dominican monastery to properly house the Ecce Homo painting. Her brother, Juan de Mayorga, donated the money to found in 1620 the Convento del Santo Ecce Homo, which is a protected historical landmark today. 
The historian Avellaneda pours a little cold water on Flórez de Ocáriz's story, noting that the conquistador Juan de Mayorga said in court documents that he was born around 1524, making him far too young to have participated in the Sack of Rome. Avellaneda also notes striking similarities between Mayorga's story and the biography of conquistador Luis Lanchero, another veteran of the Sack of Rome who acquired a "Santo Cristo de metal, pequeño, milagroso," and then fought in Cubagua before accompanying Federman to Colombia. Regardless of whether the Ecce Homo of Sutamarchán was stolen by Juan de Mayorga or his father Francisco during the Sack of Rome, or was acquired by other means, the painting has inspired nearly five centuries of religious devotion.  
The younger Juan de Mayorga (died 1642 in Vélez), son of the conquistador, married Gerónima Ramírez de Benavides (died 1661 in Vélez), the granddaughter of Juan Alonso de la Torre and great-granddaughter of Juan Rodríguez de Benavides, two conquistadors who took part in the expedition of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Juan and Gerónima had two sons, Francisco Tello de Mayorga and Juan Tello de Mayorga, who presumably continued the family line to Manuela Tello de Mayorga, my ancestor whose children with Martín Gómez Romano included:
1. José Martín Gómez Tello (buried January 21, 1811 in Barichara, may be "Joseph" listed below). His family continues below.
2. Pedro Dionisio Gómez Tello (baptized 1729 in San Gil)
3. Juana Lucía Gómez Tello (born 1735 in San Gil)
4. Francisco Javier Gómez Tello (born 1737, baptized 1739 in San Gil)
5. Paula Cecilia Gómez Tello de Uribe (baptized 1739 in San Gil) 
6. Juan Agustín Gómez Tello (born 1741 in San Gil; died 1807 in Barichara)
7. Joseph Gómez Tello (born 1745, baptized April 14, 1746 at age 1 year in San Gil)
8. María Manuela Gómez Tello (baptized 1752 in Barichara)

~ Tomás Masías (died c.1781) and María Rosalía Díaz married on August 13, 1754 in Barichara, and their children included:
1. Manuel Masías Díaz (baptized 1755 in Barichara)
2. María Luc
ía Masías Díaz (baptized December 15, 1757 in Barichara; died 1798 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
3. Luis José Masías Díaz (baptized 1761 in Barichara)
4. Juan Antonio Masías Díaz (baptized 1763 in Barichara)
5. José Apolinar Masías Díaz (baptized 1766 in Barichara)

~ Carlos Joaquín Gómez (possibly died 1830 in Zapatoca) and his relative Nieves Díaz Rueda (died 1824 in Zapatoca) married on October 6, 1774 in Zapatoca and their children included:

1. Ana Santiaga Gómez Díaz (baptized 1775 in Zapatoca) 
2. María Josefa Gómez Díaz (buried July 13, 1816 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
3 & 4. Ana Francisca & María de los Reyes Gómez Díaz (twins, baptized 1780 in Zapatoca) 
5. Ana Juliana Gómez Díaz (baptized 1781 in Zapatoca) 
6. Santiago José Gómez Díaz (born 1782 in Zapatoca; baptized 1783 in Zapatoca; died 1868 in Zapatoca) fought for Colombia's independence as a major in the army of Antonio Nariño, and took part in the victories at Calibio and Tacines in 1814. For his service, Santiago received a gold medal and a fancy sword from the Liberator, Simón Bolívar.   
7. María Teresa Gómez Díaz (baptized 1784 in Zapatoca)  
Barichara's monument to Simón Bolívar

Ninth Generation
~ Martiniano Rueda Serrano (born c.1765; died 1848 in Zapatoca) and Juana María Quijano Plata (died 1806 in Zapatoca) married on April 11, 1788 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Juan de la Cruz Rueda Quijano, whose family continues below.

2. María Cruz Rueda Quijano (baptized 1800 in Zapatoca)
3. Jesús Damiano Rueda Quijano (baptized 1802 in Zapatoca) 
4. Tomás José Rueda Quijano (baptized 1805 in Zapatoca)
~ As a widower, Martiniano Rueda then married the widow Manuela Rueda Plata (seen below) in 1807 in Zapatoca.

~ Pablo de León (baptized 1728 in Guane; died 1802 in Zapatoca) and Manuela Rueda Plata (baptized 1760 in Zapatoca) married on April 25, 1779 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. José Joaquín 
León Rueda (baptized 1780 in Zapatoca)
2. Gertrudis Salomé León Rueda (baptized 1781 in Zapatoca)
3. Ana Josefa León Rueda (baptized 1783 in Zapatoca)
4. María Petronila León Rueda (baptized 1788 in Zapatoca)
5. Antonina María León Rueda (born and baptized on September 2, 1790 in Zapatoca; buried Feburary 27, 1859 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
6. Juan José Cayetano León Rueda (baptized 1792 in Zapatoca)
7. Francisco José León Rueda (baptized 1797 in Zapatoca)
~ Manuela Rueda probably married the widower Martiniano Rueda (seen above) in 1807 in Zapatoca.  

~ Gregorio José Pérez Gómez (died 1820 in Zapatoca) married Rosa Bautista Gómez Plata y Gómez (died 1839 in Zapatoca) on September 29, 1783 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Ana María Inés 
Pérez Gómez (baptized 1785 in Zapatoca)
2. Nicolás José María Pérez Gómez (baptized 1788 in Zapatoca)
3. Paulina Josefa Pérez Gómez (baptized 1791 in Zapatoca)
4. Juana de la Cruz Pérez Gómez (baptized 1794 in Zapatoca)
5. Juan Antonio Cirilo Pérez Gómez (born July 8, 1797; baptized July 10, 1797 in Zapatoca; buried October 5, 1867 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
6. Venancio José Francisco Pérez Gómez (baptized 1801 in Zapatoca)

~ Felipe Díaz Rueda (born 1774 in Zapatoca; died 1855 in Zapatoca) and Francisca Serrano Cortés (born 1775 in Zapatoca; died 1845 in Zapatoca) married in March 1803 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Isidora Díaz Serrano (born April 3, 1806; baptized April 4, 1806 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Juan Agustín Rueda Gómez (born 1772 in Zapatoca; died 1813 in Zapatoca), an exploitative slaveowner who in one 1801 record sold a 10-year-old boy, married Juana Bautista Gómez Orejarena 
(born 1772 in Zapatoca) and their children included:
1. Pablo Antonio Rueda Gómez (baptized 1797 in Zapatoca)
2. Juan Ramón Rueda Gómez (born August 28, 1799; baptized August 31, 1799 in Zapatoca; buried August 5, 1871
 in La Robada [Galán]), whose family continues below.
3. María Rita Rueda Gómez (baptized 1805 in Zapatoca)
4. Ana de Jesús Rueda Gómez (baptized 1811 in Zapatoca)

5. José Antonio Rueda Gómez (baptized 1813 in Zapatoca)
6. Plácida Rueda Gómez, who married her relative Martín Rueda Prada, seen below, in 1834 in Zapatoca.

~ Vicente Javier Rueda Berbeo (born 1773 in Zapatoca) and María Ignacia Prada Rueda (baptized 1780 in Zapatoca; died 1848 in Zapatoca) married on January 11, 1797 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. María Isabel Rueda Prada (born July 15, 1798; baptized July 16, 1798 in Zapatoca; 
buried January 13, 1880 in La Robada [Galán]), whose family continues below.
2. Bartolomé Joaquín Rueda Prada (baptized 1808 in Zapatoca)
3. Martín Rueda Prada, who married his relative Plácida Rueda Gómez, seen above, in 1834 in Zapatoca. 

~ Cristóbal Rueda Díaz (baptized 1772 in Barichara; 
died 1846 in La Robada [Galán]) and Elvira Acevedo de los Reyes (born 1772 in Zapatoca; died 1803 in Barichara) married on January 11, 1797 in Barichara and their children included:
1. Vicente Rueda Acevedo, whose family continues below.
Melchor Rueda Acevedo (born c.1802; died January 9, 1879 in La Robada [Galán]; buried January 10, 1879 in La Robada), whose family continues below.
3. José Antonio Rueda Acevedo
4. Benito José Sinforoso Rueda Acevedo (born c.1803; died 1803 in Barichara, 17 days after his mother) 
Cristóbal, after the death of Elvira, married Ignacia Castillo, who survived him. 

~ Francisco Rueda Parra married Dolores Rueda Galvis and their children included:
1. María Domitila Rueda Rueda (baptized 1803 in Barichara)
2. Gertrudis Rueda Rueda (died 1840s), whose family continues below.
3. María de los Reyes Rueda Rueda (baptized 1812 in Barichara)
4. María Nepomucena Natalia Rueda Rueda (baptized 1814 in Barichara)

5. Juan de Dios Rueda Rueda (baptized 1816 in Barichara)
6. Bartolomé Ceferino Rueda Rueda (baptized 1826 in Barichara)
7. María Praxedes Rueda Rueda (baptized 1829 in Barichara)

~ Francisco Javier de Rueda Díaz, who was the mayor of Barichara in 1794, married Manuela Acevedo Gómez (baptized 1767 in Barichara) on December 22, 1783 in Barichara. Their children included:
1. José Diego Rueda Acevedo (baptized 1784 in Barichara)
2. Pedro Antonio Rueda Acevedo (baptized April 8, 1787 
at age 4 months in Barichara), whose family continues below.
3. Juana María Rueda Acevedo (baptized 1789 in Barichara)
4. Ignacio Javier Rueda Acevedo (baptized 1790 in Barichara)
5. Carlos José Rueda Acevedo (baptized 1791 in Barichara)
6. Facundo Rueda Acevedo

~ Pedro José Díaz Martínez (born 1768 in San Gil; died 1841 in Barichara) and Teresa Gómez Rueda (died 1838 in Barichara) married on September 26, 1792 in Barichara and had 15 children, including:
1. Rosaura Díaz Gómez (buried May 11, 1847 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
2. Manuela Díaz Gómez de Gómez

3. Narciso Díaz Gómez
4. Facundo Díaz Gómez
5. Mario Díaz Gómez
6. Merardo Díaz Gómez
7. Leonor Díaz Gómez

8. Ignacio Javier Martín Díaz Gómez (baptized 1804 in Barichara)
9. Fermina Díaz Gómez (baptized 1809 in Barichara)
10. Indalecio Nazario Díaz Gómez (baptized 1812 in Barichara)

11. Gorgonio Díaz Gómez
12. Ricardo Díaz Gómez
13. María del Carmen Díaz Gómez
14. Nicanor Díaz Gómez
~ After the death of Teresa, Pedro married Ana María Gómez. 

~ José Martín Gómez Tello (died 1811 in Barichara) and María Luc
ía Masías Díaz (baptized 1757 in Barichara; died 1798 in Barichara) married on December 30, 1775 in Barichara, and their children included:
1. José Joaquín Gómez Masías (baptized 1779 in Barichara)
2. Juan Francisco Pio Gómez Masías (born May 4, 1781 in Barichara; baptized May 9, 1781 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
3. Pedro Antonio Gómez Masías
4. María del Carmen Gómez Masías (baptized 1794 in Barichara)

~ Miguel Gómez Wandurraga (probably the son of Pablo Gómez Romano de la Parra and Rafaela Wandurraga) married Josefa Vargas y Rueda (died 1790 in Barichara) and their children included:
1. Joaquina Gómez y Vargas, whose family continues below.
2. Luis José Gómez y Vargas (baptized 1780 in Barichara)

~ Carlos José de la Prada y Rueda (died 1818 in Zapatoca) and María Josefa de Rueda Berbeo were first cousins once removed who married on July 13, 1785 in Zapatoca, and their 18 children included:
1. Marcos Luciano Prada Rueda (baptized 1786 in Zapatoca)

2. Ignacio Vicente Prada Rueda (baptized 1788 in Zapatoca)
3. María Concepción Prada Rueda (baptized 1789 in Zapatoca)
4. Andrés José Prada Rueda (born and baptized June 3, 1793 in Zapatoca; buried June 16, 1860 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.

~ Andrés José de Rueda Berbeo (born 1773 in Zapatoca) and his relative María Josefa Gómez Díaz (died 1816 in Zapatoca) married on October 11, 1796 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. Pia Rueda Gómez (buried August 26, 1846 in Zapatoca), whose family continues below.
2. María Antonia Ceferina Rueda Gómez (baptized 1811 in Zapatoca)

3. José Luciano Rueda Gómez (baptized 1814 in Zapatoca)

Tenth Generation
~ Juan de la Cruz Rueda Quijano (born c.1790; possibly died 1840 in Zapatoca) and Antonina León Rueda (born 1790 in Zapatoca; died 1859 in Zapatoca) were cousins who married on March 5, 1810 in Zapatoca. In her last testament, Antonina 
León said that her husband Juan de la Cruz Rueda "died in a state of great poverty, and only left [as inheritance] a small clearing in the site of Ranchoviejo" (now Betulia, Santander, Colombia), which was originally part of Antonina's dowry. Juan de la Cruz Rueda and Antonina León had nine children: 
1. Francisco de Paula Rueda León (baptized 1810 in Zapatoca)
2. Juana Victoria Rueda León (baptized 1814 in Zapatoca)
3. María Felipa Rueda León (baptized 1817 in Zapatoca)
4. Ana Joaquina Ramona Rueda León (baptized 1819 in Zapatoca)
5. María Rita Rueda León (baptized 1822 in Zapatoca)
6. Ruperto (or Roberto) Rueda León (born c.1823; buried August 9, 1893 in Galán), whose family continues below.
7. Juan Noberto Rueda León (born 1824 in Zapatoca)
8. Juana María del Carmen 
Rueda León (baptized 1827 in Zapatoca)
9. Luis Fernando Rueda León (born 1829 in Zapatoca)

~ Juan Antonio Pérez Gómez (born 1797 in Zapatoca; died 1867 in Zapatoca) and Isidora Díaz Serrano (baptized 1806 in Zapatoca; died before her husband) were third cousins who married on July 12, 1826 in Zapatoca. Their children included:
1. María Cayetana de los Dolores Pérez Díaz (born August 7, 1827 in Zapatoca; baptized August 8, 1827 in Zapatoca; died July 18, 1889 in 
Galán; buried July 19, 1889 in Galán), whose family continues below.
2. Ana María Natalia del Carmen Pérez Díaz (born 1830 in Zapatoca)
3. Nepomucena Rafaela Pérez Díaz (born 1831 in Zapatoca)
4. Ramón Trinidad Pérez Díaz (born 1835 in Zapatoca)
5. Domitila Damiana Pérez Díaz (born 1838 in Zapatoca)
6. José Bernardo Ramón Pérez Díaz (born 1840 in Zapatoca)
7. Claudia Joaquina Pérez Díaz (born 1841 in Zapatoca)
8. Carlos Gregorio Pérez Díaz (born 1843 in Zapatoca)
9. Nicanor Gumercindo Pérez Díaz (born 1846 in Zapatoca)

~ Ramón Rueda Gómez (born 1799 in Zapatoca; 
died 1871 in La Robada [Galán]) and Isabel Rueda Prada (born 1798 in Zapatoca; died 1880 in La Robada [Galán]) were cousins who married in December 1820 in Zapatoca and their children included:
1. María Rita de los Dolores Rueda Rueda (born 1821 in Zapatoca)
2. Juana Joaquina Rueda Rueda (born 1823 in Zapatoca; died 1901 in Galán), who is probably the "Ana Joaquina Rueda" who married her younger cousin Domingo Rueda (born 1841), seen below. 
3. José María Rueda Rueda (born September 8, 1825 in Zapatoca; baptized September 11, 1825 in Zapatoca; buried September 9, 1902 in Galán), who married his cousin Andrea Rueda Rueda, seen below, in 1857 in Galán, and whose family continues below.
4. Custodio Rueda Rueda (born 1828 in Zapatoca; died 1905 in Galán), who married his second cousin Leocadia Rueda in 1854 in Galán.
5. María Victoria de la Circuncisión Rueda Rueda (born 1833 in Zapatoca)
6. Cayetano María Rueda Rueda (born 1835 in Zapatoca)
7. María Eleuteria de Jesús Rueda Rueda (born 1837 in Zapatoca)
8. Gregorio María Rueda Rueda (born 1839 in Zapatoca), who married his cousin Praxedis Rueda Rueda, seen below.  
9. Juana Bautista Rueda Rueda (baptized 1845 in Galán)
10. Juan Agustín Rueda Rueda, who married his cousin Indalecia Macías Rueda.

~ Melchor Rueda Acevedo (born 1802; died January 9, 1879 in La Robada [Galán]) first married Gertrudis Rueda Rueda (died 1840s), his first cousin once removed, on January 25, 1826 in Barichara, and their children included (order uncertain):
1. Luciano Modesto Rueda Rueda (baptized 1827 in Barichara; died 1892 in 
Galán), who married his first cousin Encarnación Rueda, seen below, in 1850 in Galán.
2. Sinforosa Rueda Rueda (born 1829; died 1894 in Galán), who married her cousin Pablo Macías Acevedo in 1848 in Galán.
3. Dolores Rueda Rueda (born c.1831; died 1911 in Galán), who married her first cousin Rudecindo Rueda Torres in 1849 in Galán.
4. Zoila Carlota Felipa Rueda Rueda (baptized 1832 in Galán), who is probably "María Carlota" who married her cousin Ciriano Macías Acevedo in 1848 in Galán.
5. Merarda Rueda Rueda (born c.1835; died 1905 in Galán), who married her third cousin Julián Rueda Ortíz (c.1826-1880).
6. Andrea Rueda Rueda (born c.1838; buried July 31, 1903 in Galán), who married her cousin José María Rueda Rueda, seen above, in 1857 in Galán, and whose family continues below.
7. María del Rosario Rueda, who married her first cousin Ramón Rueda, seen below, in 1857 in Galán, and then after Ramón's death married her cousin Dámaso Vecino in 1873.
8. Domingo Rueda Rueda (born 1841), who married his older cousin 
Ana Joaquina Rueda Rueda (1823-1901), seen above, in 1859 in Galán.
9. Praxedis Rueda Rueda, who married her cousin Gregorio Rueda Rueda, seen above. 

~ Melchor Rueda, after the death of Gertrudis Rueda, married a second time to Concepción Camargo, and their children included:
1. María Zoila Rueda Camargo (born 1844), who married Buenaventura Guar
2. Juan Mariano Rueda Camargo (baptized 1846 in Galán; died 
1846 in Galán)
3. María Fernanda Rueda Camargo (born 1850), who married her first cousin José Rueda Torres, seen below. 
4. María Patrocinia Rueda Camargo
5. Benito Rueda Camargo, who married Carolina Acevedo.
6. María Trinidad Rueda Camargo
7. Josefito [José Eustaquio] Rueda Camargo (baptized 1860 in Galán)
8. José Miguel Rueda Camargo, who first married Inocencia Le
ón and then married Dolores Rueda, his first cousin once removed, in 1907 in Galán.
9. Ramón Rueda Camargo

~ Vicente Rueda Acevedo married Paula Torres and their children included:
1. Rudecindo Rueda Torres (born c.1832; died 1902 in 
Galán), who married his first cousin, Dolores Rueda Rueda, in 1849 in Galán.
2. Encarnación Rueda Torres (born c.1831; died 1901 in Galán), who married her first cousin Modesto Rueda Rueda, seen above, in 1850 in Galán.
3. Ramón Rueda Torres, who married his first cousin María del Rosario Rueda de Rueda, seen above, in 1857 in Galán.
4. María Eravis Rueda Torres
5. María Serapia Rueda Torres (born c.1846; died 1906 in 
6. María Eloy Rueda Torres
7. José Rueda Torres, who married his first cousin 
Fernanda Rueda Camargo, seen above.
8. Eduvigis Rueda de Rueda
9. Daniel Rueda Torres, who married his first cousin once removed, Engracia Macías Rueda.

~ Pedro Antonio Rueda Acevedo (baptized April 8, 1787 in Barichara) and Rosaura Díaz Gómez (buried May 11, 1847 in Barichara), who were second cousins on the 
Gómez Romano side, married on June 19, 1811 in Barichara and their children included:
1. Pedro León Rueda Díaz (baptized 1812 in Barichara; died 1855 in Barichara)
2. Pedro Marcelino Rueda Díaz (baptized 1814 in Barichara)
3. Domingo Antonio Rueda Díaz (baptized October 2, 1816 in Barichara; buried October 2, 1886 in San Gil), whose family continues below.
4. María Antonia Purificación Rueda Díaz (baptized 1819 in Barichara)
5. Feliciana Rueda Díaz (baptized 1821 in Barichara)
6. José Camilo Anacleto Rueda Díaz (baptized 1824 in Barichara)
7. Benito José Rueda Díaz (baptized 1827 in Barichara)
8. José Ignacio Vicente Gamaliel Rueda Díaz (baptized 1829 in Barichara)
9. Anselmo Fidel Rueda Díaz (baptized 1831 in Barichara)
10. Gorgonio Rueda Díaz (died 1836 in Barichara)

11. Ildefonso Rueda Díaz (baptized 1836 in Barichara)
12. Juan Esteban Rueda Díaz (baptized 1840 in Barichara; died 1916 in Barichara)

~ Juan Francisco Gómez Masías 
(born May 4, 1781 in Barichara; baptized May 9, 1781 in Barichara) married Joaquina Gómez Vargas and their children included:
1. Luis Fernando Gómez Gómez (baptized 1804 in Barichara)
2. María Valentina Gómez Gómez de Rueda (baptized 1806 in Barichara)
3. María Petronila Gómez Gómez de Rueda (baptized November 7, 1819 in Barichara; buried July 10, 1886 in San Gil), whose family continues below.
4. Juan Isidro Gómez Gómez (baptized 1824 in Barichara)
5. María Clotilde Gómez Gómez (baptized 1826 in Barichara)
6. Dorotea Gómez Gómez de Rueda (baptized 1828 in Barichara; died 1853 in Barichara)

Andrés José Prada Rueda (born June 3, 1793 in Zapatoca; died 1860 in Zapatoca) and Pia Rueda Gómez (died 1846 in Zapatoca) were first cousins who married on January 22, 1817 in Zapatoca. Their children included:
1. Juan de la Cruz José Prada Rueda (born 1817 in Zapatoca)

2. José María Calixto Prada Rueda (born 1819 in Zapatoca)
3. María Isabel Prada Rueda (born 1821 in Zapatoca)
4. José Pio Prada Rueda (born 1824 in Zapatoca)
5. María del Socorro Prada Rueda (born 1826 in Zapatoca)
6. María Florentina Prada Rueda (born March 13, 1829 in Zapatoca; baptized March 14, 1829 in Zapatoca; buried January 17, 1896 in Barichara), whose family continues below.

7. María Josefa Prada Rueda (born 1834 in Zapatoca)
8. Ana Joaquina Narcisa Prada Rueda (born 1836 in Zapatoca)
9. María Marcelina Prada Rueda (born 1839 in Zapatoca)

Eleventh Generation
~ Ruperto Rueda León (born c.1823; died 1893 in Galán) and Dolores Pérez Díaz (born August 7, 1827 in Zapatoca; died July 18, 
1889 in Galán) were third cousins who married on November 18, 1846 in Zapatoca. Their children included:
1. Eufemiano Victorino Rueda Pérez (born September 6, 1847 in Zapatoca; baptized September 8, 1847 in Zapatoca; buried May 27, 1903 in Galán), whose family continues below.
2. José Evangelista Rueda Pérez (baptized 1848 in Zapatoca)
3. Pedro Pablo Judiel Rueda Pérez (baptized 1850 in Zapatoca), who married Serapia Rueda Rueda, seen below, on January 9, 1889 in Galán.
4. María Resurreción Rueda Pérez (baptized 1852 in Zapatoca)
5. María Antonia Leonildes Rueda Pérez (baptized 1853 in Zapatoca)
6. Bárbara Rosenda Rueda Pérez (baptized 1855 in Zapatoca)
7. Eleuterio José Salomón Rueda Pérez (baptized 1857 in Zapatoca)
8. Adelaida Nicamora Rueda Pérez (baptized 1859 in Zapatoca)
9. Enrique Basilio Rueda Pérez (baptized 1860 in Zapatoca)
10. Eusebio Ismael Rueda Pérez (baptized 1862 in Zapatoca)
11. María Camila Encarnación Rueda Pérez (baptized 1864 in Zapatoca), who married Claudio Rueda Rueda, seen below.
12. Adolfo Rueda Pérez (born 1866 in Galán)
13. Emiliana de Jesús Rueda Pérez (born 1869 in Galán)
14. A. Santiago Rueda Pérez (born 1871 in Galán)

15. María Antonia Mercedes de la Paz Rueda Pérez (baptized 1874 in Galán)

~ José María Rueda Rueda (born September 8, 1825 in Zapatoca; died 1902 in 
Galán) and Andrea Rueda Rueda (born c.1838; died 1903 in Galán), who were related, married in 1857 in Galán and their children included:
1. José Valerio Rueda Rueda (baptized 1858 in Galán), who married his first cousin Cristina Rueda in 1896 in Galán.
2. Antonino Rueda Rueda (baptized 1859 in Galán)
3. Calixto María Eduardo Rueda Rueda (born 1862 in Galán)
4. Claudio Rueda Rueda, who married Camila 
Rueda Pérez, seen above.
5. Serapia Rueda Rueda (born 1866 in Galán), who married Pedro Rueda Pérez, seen above, on January 9, 1889 in Galán.
6. Pedro José de la Cruz Rueda Rueda (born 1868 in Galán), who married his first cousin Dolores Rueda in 1892 in Galán.
7. Indalecio Rueda Rueda
8. María Consolación Rosalía Rueda Rueda (born Setember 3, 1870 in Galán; 
baptized September 4, 1870 in Galán; died 1949 in San Gil; buried on September 27, 1949 in Galán), whose family continues below.
9. Juan Ramón Rueda Rueda (baptized 1874 in Galán)
10. Sinforiano Rueda Rueda (baptized 1876 in Galán), who married Rosa María Rueda, his first cousin once removed, in 1905 in Galán.
11. Cenón Rueda Rueda (baptized 1878 in Galán), who married Concepción Rueda Macías, his first cousin once removed, in 1904 in Galán.

~ Domingo Rueda Díaz (baptized October 2, 1816 in Barichara; died 1886 in San Gil) and Petronila Gómez Gómez (baptized November 7, 1819 in Barichara; died 1886 in San Gil), who were double third cousins, married on January 9, 1839 in Barichara and they had 10 children:
1. José de la Asunción Rueda Gómez (baptized 1840 in Barichara; died 1840 in Barichara)
2. Frito Vicente Rueda Gómez (born October 25, 1841 in Barichara; baptized October 27, 1841 in Barichara; buried September 24, 1922 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
3. Isabel Rueda Gómez (baptized 1843 in Barichara)
4. Andrés Rueda Gómez (baptized 1845 in Barichara)
5. Juana Matilde Rueda Gómez (baptized 1847 in Barichara)

6. Fermina Rueda Gómez
7. Gil Rueda Gómez (born c.1851; died 1898 in Barichara), whose family continues below.

8. Ricarda Rueda Gómez
9. Rosalía Rueda Gómez
10. Lucrecia Rueda Gómez

~ Florentina Prada Rueda (born March 13, 1829 in Zapatoca; died 1896 in Barichara), an unmarried woman, had at least three children:
1. Mónica Prada (born c.1854; buried July 16, 1929 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
Antonio Prada (born c.1858; died 1938 in Barichara), whose family continues below.
3. José Ambrosio Prada (born 1861 in Zapatoca; died 1923 in Barichara), whose family continues below.

Twelfth Generation
~ Eufemiano Rueda Pérez (born September 6, 1847 in Zapatoca; died 1903 in Galán) and Consolación Rueda Rueda (born September 3, 1870 in Galán;
died 1949 in San Gil) married on January 9, 1889 in Galán and their children included:
1. Rito Antonio Rueda Rueda (born May 9, 1890 in Galán; baptized June 2, 1890 in Galán; died 1959), whose family continues below.
2. Luis Rodulfo Rueda Rueda (baptized 1891 in Galán)
3. Dolores Rueda de Gómez (baptized 1893 in Galán)
4. Rafael Rueda Rueda (baptized 1894 in Galán), who died in childhood.
5. José Ruperto Rueda Rueda (baptized 1896 in Galán)
6. Rafael Rueda Rueda (baptized 1898 in Galán), whose family continues below.
7. Amalia Rueda Rueda (baptized 1901 in Galán)
8. Ana Feliza "Elisa" Rueda de Barajas (baptized 1903 in Galán)

~ Vicente Rueda Gómez (born October 25, 1841 in Barichara; died 1922 in Barichara) and Mónica Prada (born c.1854; died 1929 in Barichara) married on April 20, 1870 in Barichara and their children included:
1. Dimás Agustín Rueda Prada (baptized 1871 in Barichara)
2. María Mercedes Rueda Prada (baptized 1872 in Barichara)
3. Ana Rosa Rueda Prada (baptized 1879 in Barichara)
4. Pedro Vicente Rueda Prada (baptized 1882 in Barichara)
5. Romelia Rueda Prada (born September 21/22, 1887 in Barichara; baptized January 7, 1888 at age 3 months and 16 days 
in Barichara), whose family continues below.
6. Elvira Rueda Prada (born c.1895; died 1942 in Barichara), who married her first cousin Juan Vicente Prada Afanador, seen below, in 1914 in Barichara.

~ Gil Rueda Gómez (born c.1851; died 1898 in Barichara) married Ester Gómez (born 1857; buried July 26, 1890 in Barichara) and their children included:
1. Pedro Antonio Rueda Gómez (baptized 1874 in Barichara)
2. Ana Dolores Rueda Gómez (baptized 1875 in Barichara)
3. Pedro Guillermo Rueda Gómez (baptized 1876 in Barichara)
4. Helvia Rueda Gómez (born c.1881), whose family continues below.
~ Gil Rueda then married Filomena Pe
ñuela (born c.1867) in 1891 in Barichara and their children included:
5. María Mercedes Rueda Peñuela (baptized 1892 in Barichara)

The gravestone of Ester Gómez de Rueda in the Barichara cemetery.

~ Antonio Prada (born c.1858; died 1938 in Barichara), who ran a grocery store and sold liquor, married Amalia Noriega Díaz in 1909 in Barichara. Their children included: 
1. Ana Mar
ía Prada Noriega (born 1911 in Barichara)
2. Ana Bel
én Prada Noriega (born 1913 in Barichara), who married Bernardo Robledo in 1973 in Bogotá. 
3. Amelia 
Prada Noriega (born 1915, baptized 1916 in Barichara)
4. Domingo Antonio 
Prada Noriega, O.P. (born 1918 in Barichara; died 1966 in Bogotá), who was a Dominican friar. 

~ Ambrosio Prada (born 1861 in Zapatoca; died 1923 in Barichara) was a coffee and sugar trader who died of a "bad liver." He married Bertina Afanador Vesga and their children included:
1. Marco Aurelio Prada Afanador (born 1886 in Barichara), who married Ana 
María Castillo in 1914 in Barichara. 
2. Ciro Antonio 
Prada Afanador (born 1887, baptized 1888 in Barichara)
3. Evangelina 
Prada Afanador (born 1888, baptized 1889 in Barichara)
Ana María Prada Afanador (born 1890 in Barichara; died 1904 in Barichara)
5. Timole
ón Prada Afanador (born 1891 in Barichara)
6. Juan Vicente 
Prada Afanador (born 1893 in Barichara), who married his first cousin Elvira Rueda Prada, seen above, in 1914 in Barichara. They had at least a son, Roberto Prada Rueda, O.P. (born 1914 in Barichara), who was a Dominican friar, writer, and historian.
María del Carmen Prada Afanador (born 1894 in Barichara; died 1895 in Barichara)
María del Carmen Prada Afanador (born 1898 in Barichara)
9. Francisco 
Prada Afanador (born 1899 in Barichara)
10. Juan Francisco 
Prada Afanador (born 1900 in Barichara)
11. Clementina 
Prada Afanador (born 1902 in Barichara), who married Ladislao Ortíz Silva in 1927 in Barichara. 
12. Luis José Prada Afanador (born 1903 in Barichara), who married Joaquina Ballesteros in 1955 in Barichara. 

Thirteenth Generation
~ Rito Antonio Rueda Rueda (born May 9, 1890 in Galán; died 1959) and Romelia Rueda Prada (born September 21/22, 1887 in Barichara) married on Jan. 30, 1920 in Barichara. 
Rito was a Conservative lawyer, a professor at Colegio Guanentá and Javeriana University, and the mayor of San Gil in 1926. As mayor, he helped found the Parque Gallineral and the city's indoor market, and entertained President Pedro Nel Ospina and his minister of public works Laureano Gómez, another man from Santander who later became president during the bloodiest years of "La Violencia." Rito and Romelia had three children:
1. José Eduardo Rueda Rueda (born April 19, 1922 in San Gil; baptized June 1, 1922 in San Gil; buried March 21, 1923 in San Gil) was a twin who died at 11 months of age of myelitis and “dentition” (teeth-cutting).
2. Rito Antonio Rueda Rueda (born April 19, 1922 in San Gil; 
baptized June 1, 1922 in San Gil; died November 2, 1997 in Bogotá)
3. Mary Rueda Rueda (born April 28, 1927 in San Gil; baptized January 19, 1928 in San Gil; died September 15, 1980 in Bogotá)

~ Rafael Rueda Rueda (born 1898 in Galán) first married Margarita Rueda Martínez (died 1938 in Galán) and had five children:
1. Hernando 
Rueda Rueda
2. Hugo Rueda Rueda
3. Beatríz Rueda Rueda
4. Fanny Rueda Rueda
5. Luis Rueda Rueda
~ After his wife died, Rafael married her sister, Serapia Rueda Martínez, in 1944 in Socorro and had another daughter: 
6. Nubia Rueda Rueda.

~ Helvia Rueda Gómez (born c.1881) and Dr. Calixto Camacho Camacho (born 1862 in Tunja; died 1937 in San Gil) married in 1900 in Barichara. Calixto was the son of second cousins José Manuel Camacho Lozano and Dolores Camacho Pradilla and the 10th-great-grandson of Pedro Alonso Niño (c.1468-1502), who in 1492 piloted the Niña 
and sailed the Atlantic Ocean alongside Christopher Columbus. Calixto earned a medical degree from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia in 1897, and his thesis was on measles. He led a troop from Barichara during the Thousand Days' War, then moved to San Gil in 1912, where he was a general practitioner and soon earned the highest salary in town. He was also an amateur historian and archaeologist. The children of Elvia and Calixto included:
1. Carmen Camacho Rueda (born 1902 in Barichara; died 1991 in Bogotá)
2. Ester Camacho Rueda (born 1907 in San Gil)
3. Julia Camacho Rueda
4. Dolores Camacho Rueda
5. Luis Camacho Rueda (born 1911 in San Gil; died 1991 in Bogotá)
6. Aurelio Camacho Rueda (born 1912 in San Gil; died 1983 in Bogotá)

Fourteenth Generation
~ Rito Antonio Rueda Rueda (born April 19, 1922 in San Gil; died November 2, 1997 in Bogotá) was a lawyer, judge, Conservative politician, journalist, and historian. As the administrator of the Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia in 1955, under the Rojas Pinilla dictatorship, Rito produced the library's first radio broadcast, which aired on the military's station. Here is an interview with Rito about the activities of the Biblioteca Nacional. Rito served as the mayor of San Gil from 1959-1960, during which he wrote the city's anthem, created the city's flag, and founded its "Casa de la Cultura." In 1968, Rito published "Presencia de un pueblo" (Presence of a People), his book about the history, culture, and notable residents of San Gil, featuring a prologue by 
Laureano Gómez, the infamous Conservative president who served during La ViolenciaRito ran for senator of Santander in 1970 as the ANAPO Party candidate and lost. He spent his later years in Bogotá. 
Rito married Eugenia Vásquez Lara (1916-1998) on July 19, 1952 in the Iglesia de la Sagrada Pasión in Bogotá [read more about the Vásquez and Lara families] and they had two sons. One son was a Vietnam War veteran and the other was a Persian Gulf War veteran. Separated, Rito then had another daughter.

~ Mary Rueda Rueda (born April 28, 1927 in San Gil; died September 15, 1980 in 
Bogotá) was a poet and photographer who lived for a while in Paris and knew Gabriel García Márquez during his starving years. She married in 1953 Rafael Pachón Grodillo, an older landowner, and had no children.

~ Carmen Camacho Rueda (born 1902 in Barichara; died 1991 in Bogotá) married Campo Elías Franco (the son of Cayetano Franco Pinzón and Eduarda Gómez) in 1919 in San Gil, and had six children:
1. Elena Franco de Roncallo
2. Hugo Franco Camacho (born 1925 in San Gil)
3. Luz Franco de Arciniegas, the mother-in-law of the journalist María Isabel Rueda Serbousek (the granddaughter of Dr. Maximiliano Rueda Galvis, Colombia's first psychiatrist).
4. Augusto Franco Camacho (born 1929 in San Gil)
5. Guillermo Franco Camacho (born 1936 in San Gil)
6. María Consuelo Franco de Suárez (born 1939 in San Gil)

~ Ester Camacho Rueda (born 1907 in San Gil) married Ciro Antonio Plata Plata in 1932 in San Gil, and had four children:
1. Rosario Plata Camacho
2. Helvia Plata Camacho, who married Saúl Ordóñez and had four children and many grandchildren.
3. Eduardo Plata Camacho
4. Juan Manuel Plata Camacho

~ Luis Camacho Rueda (born 1911 in San Gil; died 1991 in San Gil) was the Governor of Santander from 1945-1946, and there is now a technical college in San Gil named after him. He married María Márquez Forero and had three children: José Manuel, María Victoria, and Luis Camacho Márquez.

~ Aurelio Camacho Rueda (born 1912 in San Gil; died 1983 in Bogotá) was the Minister of Public Works (1958-1959) and Minister of the Treasury (1961) for President Alberto Lleras Camargo and Minister of the Interior and Justice (1963-1964) for President Guillermo León Valencia. Aurelio married María Teresa Acevedo in 1935 in Tunja and they had two sons, Juan José and Fernando Camacho Acevedo.

Aurelio Camacho Rueda (Source: El Colombiano)

~ Dolores Camacho Rueda married Álvaro López Posada and had a daughter, Sor María Ester López Camacho, who was a nun.

Questions? Comments? Please email me at ruedafingerhut [at] gmail.com


  1. Hi,

    My great-great grandmother was from San Gil, her name was Julia Rueda. My great grandmother after being raped never went back to San Gil. Before dying she told my mother that she should never be so proud. I wonder if we are related. Only a few weeks ago my mother talked about her grandmother to me. It was very interesting, she said that we are related to the Conde de Cuchicute. I don't think that's an honor after reading about him, however, I would love to learn more about your family.

  2. Ester Camacho Rueda and Ciro Antonio Plata Plata did not only Have ONE Child, (juan Manuel) he was actually the youngest of 4 children: Rosario Plata Camacho, Helvia Plata Camacho (my grandma), Eduardo Plata Camacho and lastly Juan Manuel Plata Camacho. My grandma Helvia maride Saúl Ordóñez and had 4 children: Germán Ordóñez, María Clara Ordoñez, Andrés Ordóñez and María Teresa Ordóñez. María Clara married Jorge Remolina and had 2 daughters: María Juliana Remolina Ordoñez and Nathalia Remolina Ordoñez (me).

  3. Hola,
    Buscando información sobre el Dr. Julius Serbousek, nacido en 1883 en Viena y Frances Serbousek nació 1932 en Bombay. Julius es el abuelo de María Isabel. Frances es la madre de María Isabel Rueda Serbousek. El abuelo de Julio y mi abuelo eran hermanos. Me gustaría recibir komtakt la señora Maria Isabel.
    Pavel Serbousek - serbousek@email.cz